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Golamreza Olyaei, Ph.D.
Vol 14 No 4 (2020)
Introduction: Reading is undoubtedly one of the most valuable skills of human beings. This complex behavior is composed of several distinct skills. Different theories about reading methods have been proposed and many researchers believe that reading methods varies in languages because of the different transparency in their orthography, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the Persian word reading pattern in children with dyslexia and normal children and compare their abilities.
Materials and Methods: For conducting this cross-sectional study, after issuing required permits, the elementary school children with dyslexia were identified by referring to learning disorders schools in Tehran City, Iran. After evaluating and diagnosing by the psychologist and speech therapist, 16 students with dyslexia were found. Then 32 normal age-matched students of Tehran’s public schools were randomly selected from the available population as the control group. The reading and phonological awareness tests were then performed in different sessions. The results of the tests were recorded and the data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Spearman tests in SPSS version 20.
Results: There was a significant difference between children with dyslexia and their age-matched normal group in reading skills and phonological awareness (P<0.05). In both groups, the mean percentage in reading irregular words was higher than the mean percentage of non-word reading. There is a significant correlation between reading speed and reading irregular words in both groups, and also between reading accuracy and reading non-words (P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the reading speed and reading non-words in the group with dyslexia (P<0.05). But in normal children, there is no significant correlation between these tasks. This difference shows the problem of children with dyslexia pertains to reading non-words.
Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, in children with dyslexia, there is a problem with reading non-words, and the dual-route of word reading has changed to only the whole word reading route. So it is important to consider phonological awareness skills training in children with dyslexia.
Introduction: This study aimed to compare the effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) combined with Dry Needling (DN) with DN alone on pain and neck disability index following myofascial pain syndrome.
Materials and Methods: Sixteen women with active Trigger Points (TrPs) in their upper trapezius muscles participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: Experimental and control. The experimental group received one session of the DN plus the LLLT with 6 j/cm2 energy at their TrPs. The patients in the control group were under a similar procedure, but they did not receive any energy by the LLLT (placebo). The pain score was assessed before, immediately, and 48 hours after the treatment. Neck Disability Index (NDI) was assessed before and 48 hours after the treatment.
Results: There was a significant improvement in pain intensity and NDI scores 48 hours after the treatment in both groups compared with the baseline scores (P<0.05). The pain was also significantly reduced at the patients following laser therapy immediately after the treatment (P=0.01).
Conclusion: A combination of the LLLT and DN might be more effective compared with using DN alone, and reduce immediate pain at the patients with the active TrPs. There was no difference between the groups 48 hours after the treatment. It seems that LLLT has no considerable effect on NDI and pain intensity 48 hours after the treatment.
Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders are important causes of pain. Trigger points are one of the common reasons for myofascial pain. This study aimed to compare a single session of dry needling versus a single session of shock wave therapy on the level of pain and Range of Motion (ROM) in the people with Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) of the upper trapezius muscle.
Materials and Methods: Sixteen men with active trigger points of upper trapezius muscle were voluntarily attended in this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients were under a single session treatment of either dry needling or shock wave therapy. Level of pain (by Visual Analog Scale [VAS]) and active ROM of neck lateral flexion (by goniometer) were evaluated once before the treatment and immediately after the intervention.
Results: The VAS scores and the neck ROMs were substantially improved at both groups of study immediately after the treatment (P<0.012). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups of interventions in terms of the VAS and ROM scores (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Both dry needling and shock wave therapy can improve neck pain and ROM in patients with active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle.
Introduction: Recent studies have examined the risk factors associated with lower limb injuries. This study aimed to explore the effect of 12 sessions of feedback corrective exercises on the kinematic indicators of the knee and the Electromyography Activity (EMG) of the muscles of the lower limbs of female wushu players. The present study has a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test/post-test design and a control group.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 16 female wushu players were selected by the available sampling method and placed in two groups of exercise and control. The exercise group performed feedback correction exercises for 12 sessions. Before and after the knee varus exercises, we measured, pelvic drop, and EMG of the lower limb muscles of both groups in the SLS movement. The independent two-sample t-test was used to examine intergroup differences and the two-group correlated t-test was used to compare intra group sizes. To analyze the statistical data, SPSS V. 23 was used (P≤0.05)
Results: The results showed a significant difference in knee varus between the experiment group and the control group in the pre-test and there was a significant difference between the pelvic drop in the pre-test and post-test of the experiment group compared with the control. The angle of the knee varus in the exercise group showed a significant difference with the control group. The EMG results of the muscles in the pre-test and post-test were significantly different.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, the feedback correction exercise may improve motion control in wushu players. It also improved neuromuscular weakness in the subjects. According to the results and based on less muscle activity during movements, this exercise will reduce fatigue and the risk of injury.
Introduction: This study aimed to find out the expectations of mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP), who are engaged in rehabilitation programs, especially in physical therapy treatment.
Materials and Methods: Clinical types and gross motor function levels of the children were documented. A questionnaire consisting of 6 open-ended questions was used to define the expectations and views of the mothers of CP children about the physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs for the children. A total of 100 mothers were interviewed through an observational study with six open-ended questions along with demographic data.
Results: There was no significant agreement regarding the applied treatment methods and the appropriateness of the rehabilitation programs.
Conclusion: The expectations of mothers of CP children are not as high as they wanted from rehabilitation according to their children’s needs.
Introduction: The present study is a case report of a 50-year-old man (SM) with aphasia whose word retrieval was severely impaired. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of a combined treatment program (attention training and language treatment) and a single program (language treatment alone) on the naming picture materials.
Materials and Methods: This case was affected by a hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident in the territory of Middle Cerebral Artery branches of the left hemisphere. Two naming treatments, i.e. the single and combined treatments sequentially, were provided for SM; during each of them a 50-item wordlist was practiced (Lists A and B). 12 treatment sessions were implemented for him during each treatment program. These two lists along with another list (List C), left for assessment of generalization of treatments to untrained items, were probed 6 times during and after each program. The whole picture set was normalized in another study described in the text.
Results: Our patient’s naming ability progressed during the treatment programs. However, this progression was more salient in combined treatment program. More specifically, List B had the mean score of 34.25 in combined treatment program that was higher than mean of List A in single treatment program (14.5). The slope of List B scores was also higher than that of List A (3.7 vs 1.2). List C showed more generalization of combined treatment to untrained items than single treatment based on its mean scores (27 vs 18.5).
Conclusion: the observed improvements of naming ability were felt to be the result of combining attention training into the language treatment which is lead to sustained attention, less distraction and more concentration.
The competence to perceive the spatial surroundings is vital to tasks ranging from catching nearby objects to complex navigation through an unknown environment. Yet, many studies testing the functioning of visually impaired people in spatial tasks reported mixed results. Although the role of vision still remains critical in various aspects for such activities, vision experience is not necessarily needed for productive spatial cognition. The neural plasticity of the remaining modalities can reorganize the human brain to compensate the effects of blindness in order to efficiently implement the spatial cognition for navigating. The ability to discern the true nature of the human spatial cognition will lead to potential precise applications in the development of aids for visually impaired people.
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