A Study of Word Reading in Persian-speaking Children With Dyslexia and Normal Ones
Introduction: Reading is undoubtedly one of the most valuable skills of human beings. This complex behavior is composed of several distinct skills. Different theories about reading methods have been proposed and many researchers believe that reading methods varies in languages because of the different transparency in their orthography, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the Persian word reading pattern in children with dyslexia and normal children and compare their abilities.
Materials and Methods: For conducting this cross-sectional study, after issuing required permits, the elementary school children with dyslexia were identified by referring to learning disorders schools in Tehran City, Iran. After evaluating and diagnosing by the psychologist and speech therapist, 16 students with dyslexia were found. Then 32 normal age-matched students of Tehran’s public schools were randomly selected from the available population as the control group. The reading and phonological awareness tests were then performed in different sessions. The results of the tests were recorded and the data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Spearman tests in SPSS version 20.
Results: There was a significant difference between children with dyslexia and their age-matched normal group in reading skills and phonological awareness (P<0.05). In both groups, the mean percentage in reading irregular words was higher than the mean percentage of non-word reading. There is a significant correlation between reading speed and reading irregular words in both groups, and also between reading accuracy and reading non-words (P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the reading speed and reading non-words in the group with dyslexia (P<0.05). But in normal children, there is no significant correlation between these tasks. This difference shows the problem of children with dyslexia pertains to reading non-words.
Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, in children with dyslexia, there is a problem with reading non-words, and the dual-route of word reading has changed to only the whole word reading route. So it is important to consider phonological awareness skills training in children with dyslexia.
Brunswick N. Dyslexia. Oxford: One world Publications; 2009. https://oneworld-publications.com/dyslexia-pb.html
Anthony JL, Francis DJ. Development of phonological awareness. Current Direction in Psychological Science. 2004; 14(5):255-9. [DOI:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00376.x]
Rayner A, Pollatsek A, Ashby J, Charles JR. The psychology of reading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall International Inc.; 1989. https://books.google.com/books?
Perfetti CA. Reading ability. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1985. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1985-97290-000
Ehri LC. Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English”. In: J. L Metsala & LC Ehri. editors. Word Recognition in Beginning Reading (pp. 3-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1998.
Ehri LC, Snowling MJ. Developmental variation in word recognition”. In: CA Stone, ER Silliman, BJ Ehren, & K Apel. editors. Handbook of Language and Literacy: Development and Disorders (pp. 433-460). New York: Guilford; 2004.
Martin FH, Kaine A, Kirby M. Event-related brain potentials elicited during word recognition by adult good and poor phonological decoders. Brain and Language. 2006; 96(1):1-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.bandl.2005.04.009] [PMID]
Chapey, R. Language intervention strategies in aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,2001.
Binder JR, Medler DA, Desai R, Conant LL, Liebenthal E. Some neurophysiological constraints on models of word naming. Neuroimage. 2005; 27(3):677-93. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.04.029] [PMID]
Asher R. Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, Volumes 1-14. 1st editio. Oxford: Pergman Press. https://books.google.com/books/about/Encyclopedia_of_Language_and_Linguistics.html?id=cxYGQfiD_1oC
Funnell E. Case studies in the neuropsychology of reading. Psychology Press. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=uHck_l2bLpcC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq
Sprenger-Charolles L, Siegel LS, Béchennec D, Serniclaes W. Development of phonological and orthographic processing in reading aloud, in silent reading and in spelling: A four year longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2003; 84(3):194-217. [DOI:10.1016/S0022-0965(03)00024-9]
Oney B, Goldman SR. Decoding and comprehension skills in turkish and english:effects of the regularity of grapheme-phoneme correspondences. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1984; 76(4):667-8. [DOI:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.117]
Goswami H, Wimmer U. The influence of orthographic consistency on reading development: Word recognition in English and German children. Cognition. 1994; 51(1):91-103. [DOI:10.1016/0010-0277(94)90010-8]
Goswami U, Ziegler JC, Dalton L, Schneider W. Non-word reading across orthographies: How flexible is the choice of reading units? Applied Psycholinguistics. 2003; 24(2):235-47. [DOI:10.1017/S0142716403000134]
McDougall P, Borowsky R, MacKinnon GE, Hymel S. Process dissociation of sight vocabulary and phonetic decoding in reading: A new perspective on surface and phonological dyslexias. Brain and Language. 2005; 92(2):185-203. [DOI:10.1016/j.bandl.2004.06.003] [PMID]
Ziatabar Ahmadi SZ, Arani Kashani Z, Mahmoodi Bakhtiari B, Keyhani M. [Study of the ability of first phoneme identify of words and non-words in normal 5-6 year-old persian-speaking children (Persian)]. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2011; 12(4):25-35. http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-174-fa.html
Baharlooie N, GHolami S, SHariat M, Nikzad M. The relationship between visual memory of non-words and accuracy and rate reading among female first-graders living in Isfahan-Iran. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2011; 6(2):1-5. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=202572
Ziegler JC, Bertrand D, Tóth D, Csépe V, Reis A, Faísca L, et al. [Orthographic depth and its impact on universal predictors of reading: A cross-language investigation (Persian)]. Psychological Science. 2010; 21(4):551-9. [DOI:10.1177/0956797610363406] [PMID]
Alipour A, Karimi Torkadah T, Zandi B, Yazdanfar M. The effectiveness of phonological awareness training on phone awareness skills, unmeaningful word reading and speed of reading in boys with dyslexia. Iranian Journal of Exceptional Children. 2012; 11(4):343-52. http://joec.ir/article-1-213-fa.html
de Oliveira DG, da Silva PB, Dias NM, Seabra AG, Macedo EC. Reading component skills in dyslexia: Word recognition, comprehension and processing speed. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014; 5:1339. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01339] [PMID] [PMCID]
Chung KKH, Lam CB. Cognitive-linguistic skills underlying word reading and spelling difficulties in Chinese adolescents with dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2020; 53(1):48‐59. [DOI:10.1177/0022219419882648] [PMID]
Van Reybroeck M, De Rom M. Children with dyslexia show an inhibition domain-specific deficit in reading. Reading and Writing. 2020; 33:907-33 [DOI:10.1007/s11145-019-09986-z]
Shirazi Z, Nilipour R. Reading diagnostic test. Tehran: Behzisti University Press; 2004.
Soleymani Z, Dastjerdi Kazemi M. [Validity and reliability of the phonological awareness test (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology. 2005; 9(1):82-100. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=14864
|Issue||Vol 14 No 4 (2020)|
|Dyslexia Persian-speaking children Reading skills Reading patterns|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|