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Golamreza Olyaei, Ph.D.
Vol 15 No 1 (2021)
Introduction: Voluntary Response Index (VRI) is used as a measure of motor control to study abnormalities of voluntary movements. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of voluntary response index analysis in subjects with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR).
Materials and Methods: Using surface electromyography, the VRI components of both groups of 15 ACLR and 15 healthy controls were assessed during the functional task (sit-stand-sit). The outcome variables of VRI included the magnitude and similarity index.
Results: In sit to stand phase, high reliability was found (ICC=0.80-0.89) for the magnitude and similarity index in both groups. In the standing phase, high to very high reliability was found for the magnitude and similarity index in both groups (ICC=0.75-0.91). In stand to sit phase, high to very high reliability was found (ICC=0.78-0.92) for the magnitude and similarity index in both groups.
Conclusion: Surface electromyographic measurements of VRI analysis demonstrated high to very high reliability in athletes with ACLR during the functional task (sit-stand-sit). The results of the current study showed that the VRI analysis in athletes after ACLR was a reliable method and can be used to evaluate motor control before and after ligament injury in these patients.
Introduction: The use of High Power Laser (HPL) has recently been emphasized in physiotherapy. Previous studies suggest that the prophylactic use of laser has ergogenic effects on athletic performance by increasing the contractile function of skeletal muscles. Recently, muscle function improvement is a new research idea in the field of laser therapy. Based on our knowledge, there are only two studies on the effects of HPL on muscle performance although with contradictory results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HPL on quadriceps muscle performance in male football players.
Materials and Methods: Sixteen healthy male football players (Mean±SD age=18.53±7.2 years, Mean±SD body mass index=22.8±4.4 kg/m2) participated in a pretest-posttest study. The subjects received one session of HPL (808 nm, 80 j, 2 w) on quadriceps muscles. The Isometric Peak Torque (IPT), Single-Leg Hop Test (SLHT), and Y-balance Test (YBT) were measured at baseline and immediately after HPL. For statistical analysis, we used the paired sample t test.
Results: Immediately after HPL, the IPT (P=0.001), SLHT (P=0.02), and YBT scores (P=0.001) significantly increased.
Conclusion: The results of our study showed that immediate application of one session of HPL can improve IPT as well as functional tests. Although the sessions of laser application and assessment were limited and the sample size was small, it seems that HPL could improve muscle performance. Therefore, further research is warranted with large sample size and follow-up.
Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the foot function, range of motion, plantar pressure, and plantar contact area in the distance runners with normal, pronated, highly-pronated, supinated, and highly-supinated foot posture groups during static standing.
Materials and Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 75 distance runners were divided into 5 groups using the foot posture index. The foot function and knee and foot range of motion were assessed using the Foot And Ankle Ability Measure questionnaire (FAAM) and the goniometer, respectively. The mean of the plantar pressure percentage and the mean of the contact area on the forefoot and rearfoot were investigated during static standing. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the outcomes between the groups.
Results: Among the groups, the normal foot group showed the highest scores in the activities of daily living subscale and sport subscale. Compared with the other groups, the highly-pronated foot group had a significantly greater range of motion in the ankle plantar flexion (P<0.002), and the normal foot group showed more range of motion in the first metatarsophalangeal extension (P<0.0001). In all groups, the mean plantar pressure percentage on the rearfoot was greater than the mean plantar pressure percentage on the forefoot. Of the groups, the highly-supinated foot group showed the highest plantar pressure percentage on the rearfoot (P<0.0001). However, the highly-pronated foot group showed the highest plantar pressure percentage and the largest contact area on the forefoot (P<0.0001) and the rearfoot (P>0.0001), respectively.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the foot posture is an important option that could affect function and range of motion of foot and ankle and distribution of the plantar pressure and plantar contact area.
Introduction: Executive functions develop, particularly in the first 5 years of life. This study aimed to investigate the executive functions in Persian typically-developing (TD) children aged 4 to 6 years.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 children (21 girls and 29 boys) participated. Executive functions (planning/problem solving, inhibition, shifting, and working memory) were measured by various performance-based tests (the Tower of London, Go/No-Go, Dimensional Change Card Sorting task (DCCS), forward Digit Span (FDS), Backward Digit Span (BDS) and Non-Word Repetition (NWR) and Behavior Rating Inventory Of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire). After collecting the data, they were entered into SPSS version 16.0, and data analysis was done by Mann-Whitney U test and two-tailed Spearman test. The significant level was set at 0.05.
Results: Regarding the age groups, 5-year-old children were significantly better than 4-year-old children in FDS and BDS, and regarding gender groups, performance-based tests were not significantly different between girls and boys but in the BRIEF questionnaire as parents reported, boys were significantly had better performance in daily life. BRIEF questionnaires in the boy’s group were correlated with FDS, BDS, the Tower of London, Go/No-Go, and DCCS. In the girl’s group, the BRIEF questionnaire was correlated with NWR and DCCS. In 4-year-old children, the BRIEF questionnaire was correlated with FDS, BDS, Go/No-Go, and DCCS. In 5-year-old children, the BRIEF questionnaire was correlated with BDS, the Tower of London, Go/No-Go, and DCCS.
Conclusion: It seems that TD children between the ages of 4-6 years can have different working memories but does not differ in skills such as problem-solving, shifting, and inhibition.
Introduction: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) refers to the skeletal muscle pain that follows the novel eccentric exercise. Although this condition is self-limiting, it can temporarily affect the function and interrupt training. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of Kinesio tape on pain intensity, range of motion, and function during delayed onset muscle soreness in the amateur hamstring muscles.
Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on 32 untrained individuals with a Mean±SD age of 24.16±3.049 years. At first, the participants were assessed with an active knee extension range of motion, distance in triple hop test, pressure-induced pain, and overall pain before Kinesio tape intervention, and then Kinesio tape intervention was applied to the hamstrings from origin to insertion (proximal to distal) in a Y shape with a tension of approximately 30%. The study variables were evaluated again 24, 48, and 72 hours after the intervention (4 times totally)
Results: Kinesio tape could significantly reduce pain intensity 24 hours and 48 hours after the intervention compared to before the intervention (P<0.05). Also, Kinesio tape intervention increases the range of motion of active knee extension in the first 24 hours compared to before the intervention (P=0.0.4). Besides, the effect of using Kinesio tape intervention on the variable of the triple hop test was significant 24 and 48 hours after the intervention compared to before the intervention (P<0.05). Kinesio tape increase in the threshold of compressive pain after the intervention was not significantly different from before the intervention (P>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the present study results, the Kinesio tape possibly reduced DOMS-induced parameters like pain, range of motion limitations, and function, but it had no significant advantage in other DOMS-induced parameters like pressure pain threshold. Kinesio tape application before exercise or competition should be considered by exercise trainers and athletes. Future studies may evaluate different strategies or therapeutic applications to prevent and manage DOMS.
Introduction: The attitude of teachers is effective in improving the quality of life and academic achievement of students with stuttering. The Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Stuttering (TATS) inventory is a tool for evaluating teachers’ opinions and attitudes toward stuttering. The purpose of this study is to validate the Persian version of the TATS (TATS-Persian) and a preliminary study of the attitude of elementary teachers towards stuttering.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which is of validation and instrumentation type, 32 teachers from elementary schools in Tehran were recruited by the available sampling method. To examine the content validity of TATS-Persian, 12 teachers were surveyed, and for the test-retest reliability of it, 12 teachers re-completed the TATS-Persian after one week. The statistical methods included the Cronbach alpha coefficient calculation and the Spearman correlation test.
Results: The content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of TATS-Persian were 0.92, 0.93, 0.96, respectively. The Mean±SD scores of teacher’s attitudes were 78.09 ±11.9. Also, the teachers’ attitudes score had a significant positive correlation with the number of stuttering students experienced in their teaching history.
Conclusion: The Persian version of the TATS inventory is a valid and simple tool for evaluating teachers’ attitudes toward stuttering.
Introduction: According to WHO, a stroke refers to rapidly developing clinical signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral functions, with symptoms lasting 24 hours or longer or leading to death. The damage caused by a stroke can interrupt your normal swallowing and food or fluid is entered into your airways and lungs. Dysphagia can damage the lungs, which can trigger a lung infection (pneumonia). To assess the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in stroke patients.
Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with a sample size of 35 participants from C1 ward Agha Khan Hospital in Karachi City, Pakistan. The participants were selected via random sampling method. The inclusion criteria include patients of the C1 ward with a cerebrovascular accident, both male and female gender, with the age ranges from 45 to 63 years. All statistical analysis was done by using SPSS v. 19. The paired t test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy in a patient with aspiration pneumonia. The chest physiotherapy includes turning, postural drainage, percussion, vibration, deep breathing exercises, coughing, and suctioning were performed on a patient with aspiration pneumonia.
Results: The results of this study show pre-treatment and post-treatment chest congestion, heart rate, and respiratory rate show that the P value is highly significant.
Conclusion: This study concludes that chest physiotherapy seems to be effective in treating aspiration pneumonia in cerebrovascular accident patients.
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