Efficacy of Neurofeedback Training on Reading and Spelling Skills of 8 to 12 Years Old Children With Dyslexia

  • Shekoofeh Raesi MSc. Student, Department of Speech Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hooshang Dadgar PhD Candidate, Department of Speech Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Zahra Soleymani Assistant Professor, Department of Speech Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Vahideh Hajjeforoush MSc., Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Neurofeedback, Reading skill, Dyslexia


Introduction: Progress in understanding dyslexia has led to the discovery of abnormal brain waves in the areas related to reading skill. It seems that improving the function of these areas by regulating their waves is helpful for reading process. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback training (NFT) in improving children’s reading difficulties.
Material and Methods: This was a single-subject experiment with A-B-A design. Four dyslexic boys (age range 8-12 years) received twenty 30-minute sessions of NFT three times a week to reduce their theta and delta waves at F7 and increase their beta wave at T3. Their accuracy, speed, reading comprehension, and spelling skill were assessed using Name reading test before, during, and one month after treatment. Data analysis was done by reliable change index, mean percentage improvement, and effect size. Also results were displayed by graphs.
Results: The results showed clinically significant improvement regarding the accuracy and comprehension reading as well as spelling after NFT. Reliable changes (P<0.05) and the effect size above the effective surface (Cohen’s d>2.87) refer to significant improvement of these skills. However speed reading increased in two subjects, but the effect size for the first and second participant was negative (Cohen’s d<0).
Conclusion: The results suggest that 20 sessions of NFT improves the spelling, accuracy, and comprehension reading. It seems that the increased attention (due to the reduction of theta and delta waves) and performance tuning at T3 was effective in improving these skills. However, increase in speed reading may require more sessions.



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How to Cite
Raesi S, Dadgar H, Soleymani Z, Hajjeforoush V. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Training on Reading and Spelling Skills of 8 to 12 Years Old Children With Dyslexia. jmr. 10(4):177-184.
Research Article(s)