Research Article

Comparing Plantar Pressure Distribution and Vertical Ground Reaction Force Between Healthy Subjects and Middle-aged Adults With Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD)

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to compare plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction force between middle-aged adults with Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) and healthy subjects.
Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 21 middle-aged adults with leg length discrepancy (1.5 to 3 cm), and 10 healthy subjects participated. The plantar pressure distribution of subjects was measured using five steps with an emed platform. The data were analyzed with paired t-test, 1-way ANOVA, and symmetry index (P≤0.05).
Results: While the symmetry index did not show much asymmetry in healthy subjects, in LLD subjects, it showed lower contact time in the heel region of short limb, lower pressure, and force of the middle region of short limb, the higher pressure of forefoot region of short limb and higher pressure and force of long limb.
Conclusion: It seems that the primary contact time and weight acceptance of short limb reduced that results in higher pressure of forefoot region of the foot before push-off phase. Therefore, to dispel this problem, the LLD subjects could use orthotics to make reasonable height to the heel region and thus increase the contact time.

Gurney B. Leg length discrepancy. Gait & posture. 2002; 15(2):195-206. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00148-5]

D’Amico JC, Dinowitz HD, Polchaninoff M. Limb length discrepancy. An electrodynographic analysis. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 1985; 75(12):639-43. [DOI:10.7547/87507315-75-12-639] [PMID]

Guichet JM, Spivak JM, Trouilloud P, Grammont PM. Lower limb-length discrepancy. An epidemiologic study. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1991; 272:235-41. [DOI:10.1097/00003086-199111000-00035]

Bellomo RG, D’Amico M. LBP and lower limb discrepancy: 3D evaluation of postural rebalancing via underfoot wedge correction. Gait & Posture. 2009; 29(Supplement 1):e6-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.10.012]

Pereira CS, Sacco ID. Is structural and mild leg length discrepancy enough to cause a kinetic change in runners gait? Acta Ortopédica Brasileira. 2008; 16 (1):29-31 [DOI:10.1590/S1413-78522008000100005]

Gurney B, Mermier C, Robergs R, Gibson A, Rivero D. Effects of limb-length discrepancy on gait economy and lower-extremity muscle activity in older adults. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2001; 83(6):907-15. [DOI:10.2106/00004623-200106000-00013] [PMID]

Bhave A, Paley D, Herzenberg JE. Improvement in gait parameters after lengthening for the treatment of limb-length discrepancy. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1999; 81(4):529-34. [DOI:10.2106/00004623-199904000-00010] [PMID]

Perttunen JR, Anttila E, Södergård J, Merikanto J, Komi PV. Gait asymmetry in patients with limb length discrepancy. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2004; 14(1):49-56. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00307.x] [PMID]

Farjad-Pezeshk A, Sadeghi H, Farzadi M. [Comparison of plantar pressure distribution and vertical ground reaction force between dominant and none-dominant limb in healthy subjects using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2013; 14(1):91-102. http://rehabilitationj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1168-en.html

Memar R, Ghasempour H, Farjad Pezeshk SA, Shirazikhah M. The symmetry in the selected plantar pressure distribution parameters of the elderly subject with Lower Limb Discrepancy (LLD). Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2012; 7(3):38-44. http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-519-en.html

Jamaluddin S, Sulaiman AR, Imran MK, Juhara H, Ezane MA, Nordin S. Reliability and accuracy of the tape measurement method with a nearest reading of 5 mm in the assessment of leg length discrepancy. Singapore Medical Journal. 2011; 52(9):681-4. [PMID]

Putti AB, Arnold GP, Cochrane LA, Abboud RJ. Normal pressure values and repeatability of the Emed ST4 system. Gait & Posture. 2008; 27(3):501-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.06.009] [PMID]

Herzog W, Nigg BM, Read LJ, Olsson E. Asymmetries in ground reaction force patterns in normal human gait. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1989; 21(1):110-4. [DOI:10.1249/00005768-198902000-00020] [PMID]

Eils E, Streyl M, Linnenbecker S, Thorwesten L, Völker K, Rosenbaum D. Characteristic plantar pressure distribution patterns during soccer-specific movements. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 32(1):140-5. [DOI:10.1177/0363546503258932] [PMID]

Sadeghi H, Allard P, Prince F, Labelle H. Symmetry and limb dominance in able-bodied gait: A review. Gait & posture. 2000; 12(1):34-45. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(00)00070-9]

Nazari A, Hajiaghaei B, Alaee J, Farahmand B. Immediate effect of textured insole on static balance in individuals with flexible flatfoot. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation. 2016; 10(4):163-8. [DOI:10.18869/nirp.jmr.10.4.163]Pita consedit expliquiae. Namus.

Files
IssueVol 16 No 1 (2022) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jmr.v16i1.406
Keywords
Leg length inequality gait Plantar pressure distribution

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Memar R, Farjad Pezeshk A, Ghasempour H. Comparing Plantar Pressure Distribution and Vertical Ground Reaction Force Between Healthy Subjects and Middle-aged Adults With Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD). jmr. 2022;16(1):45-52.