Research Article

Exploring the Relationship Between Speech Motor Control and Phonological Processing in Children Who Stutter and Typically Developed Children

Abstract

Introduction: Language processing (especially phonology) and speech motor control are disordered in stuttering. However, it is unclear how they are related based on the models of speech processing. The present study aimed to study non-word repetition, rhyme and alliteration judgment, and speech motor control and investigate their relationship in children who stutter (CWS) compared to typically developed children (TDC).
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight CWS (mean age=5.46 years) and 28 peers TDC (mean age=5.52 years) participated in this study. Phonological processing, according to the speech processing model, is divided into phonological input and output. Phonological input, phonological output, and speech motor control were assessed by rhyme and alliteration tasks, accurate phonological production during non-word repetition task, and Robbins-Klee oral speech motor protocol, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, and Cohen’s d were used for data analysis.
Results: Both non-word repetition and speech motor skills were significantly different in CWS than TDC (P<0.001). But rhyme and alliteration judgment were similar across groups (P>0.001). Phonological processing and speech motor control were not significantly correlated (P>0.001).
Conclusion: Phonological processing (output), a level before articulation, and speech motor control are not correlated, but both are disordered in preschool CWS. Additionally, phonological processing (input) is similar in CWS and TDC. That is, phonological input is not affected by stuttering in CWS.

Lu Ch, Long Y, Zheng L, Shi G, Liu L, Ding G, et al. Relationship between speech production and perception in peo-ple who stutter.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2016; 10:224. [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00224]

Ward D. Stuttering and Cluttering: Frameworks for understanding and treatment.London: Psychology Press; 2017. [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00224]

Hickok G. The architecture of speech production and the role of the phoneme in speech processing. Language and Cognitive Processes. 2014; 29(1):2-20. [DOI:10.1080/01690965.2013.834370] [PMID] [PMCID]

Levelt WJM. Models of word production. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 1999; 3(6):223-32. [DOI:10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01319-4]

Hartsuiker RJ, Bastiaanse R, Postma A, Wijnen F. Phonological encoding and monitoring in normal and pathological speech. London: Psychology Press; 2005. [DOI:10.4324/9780203506196]

Howell P. Assessment of some contemporary theories of stuttering that apply to spontaneous speech. Contempo-rary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders. 2004; 31 (Spring):123-40. [DOI:10.1044/cicsd_31_S_123]

Weber-Fox C, Spruill JE 3rd, Spencer R, Smith A. Atypical neural functions underlying phonological processing and silent rehearsal in children who stutter. Developmental Science. 2008; 11(2):321-37. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00678.x] [PMID] [PMCID]

Peters HF, Hulstijn W, Van Lieshout PH. Recent developments in speech motor research into stuttering. Folia Pho-niatrica et Logopaedica : Official Organ of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics (IALP). 2000; 52(1-3):103-19. [DOI:10.1159/000021518] [PMID]

Rossi R, Pinto JCBR, Arcuri CF, Ávila CRB, Schiefer AM. [Habilidades fonológicas em crianças com gagueira (Por-tuguese)]. Revista CEFAC. 2014; 16(1):167-73. [DOI:10.1590/1982-021620147012]

Bajaj A, Hodson B, Schommer-Aikins M. Performance on phonological and grammatical awareness metalinguistic tasks by children who stutter and their fluent peers. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2004; 29(1):63-77. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2004.01.001] [PMID]

MacPherson MK, Smith A. Influences of sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2013; 56(1):89-102. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0184)]

Smith A. Neural drive to muscles in stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 1989; 32(2):252-64. [DOI:10.1044/jshr.3202.252] [PMID]

Smith A, Goffman L, Sasisekaran J, Weber-Fox C. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of non-word repetition performance. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2012;. 37(4):344-58. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2012.06.001] [PMID] [PMCID]

Walsh B, Mettel KM, Smith A. Speech motor planning and execution deficits in early childhood stuttering. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 2015; 7(1):27. [DOI:10.1186/s11689-015-9123-8] [PMID] [PMCID]

Pascoe M, Stackhouse J, Wells B. Phonological therapy within a psycholinguistic framework: Promoting change in a child with persisting speech difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2005; 40(2):189-220. [DOI:10.1080/13682820412331290979] [PMID]

Stackhouse J, Pascoe M, Gardner H. Intervention for a child with persisting speech and literacydifficulties: A psycho-linguistic approach. Advances in Speech Language Pathology. 2006; 8(3):231-44. [DOI:10.1080/14417040600861029]

Maier P. Children's speech and literacy difficulties: a pyscholinguistic framework. London: Whurr, 1997. [DOI:10.1080/14417040600861029]

Salehi S, Khatoonabadi AR, Ashrafi MR, Mohammadkhani Gh, Maroufizadeh S. The effects of emotional content on phonological processing in children who stutter. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2020; 18(4):431-44. [DOI:10.32598/irj.18.4.1010.1]

Coady JA, Evans JL. Uses and interpretations of non-word repetition tasks in children with and without specific lan-guage impairments (SLI). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2008; 43(1):1-40. [DOI:10.1080/13682820601116485] [PMID] [PMCID]

Anderson JD, Wagovich SA. Relationships among linguistic processing speed, phonological working memory, and attention in children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2010; 35(3):216-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2010.04.003] [PMID] [PMCID]

Anderson JD, Wagovich SA, Hall NE. Non-word repetition skills in young children who do and do not stutter. Jour-nal of Fluency Disorders. 2006; 31(3):177-99. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2006.05.001] [PMID] [PMCID]

Hakim HB, Ratner NB. Non-word repetition abilities of children who stutter: An exploratory study. Journal of Fluen-cy Disorders. 2004; 29(3):179-99. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2004.06.001] [PMID]

Bakhtiar M, Abad AD, Panahi MS. Nonword repetition ability of children who do and do not stutter and covert re-pair hypothesis. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007; 61(8):462-70. [DOI:10.4103/0019-5359.33711] [PMID]

Jäncke L, Bauer A, Kaiser P, Kalveram KTh. Timing and stiffness in speech motor control of stuttering and nonstut-tering adults. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 1997; 22(4):309-21. [DOI:10.1016/S0094-730X(97)00022-3]

Namasivayam AK, van Lieshout P. Speech motor skill and stuttering. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2011; 43(6):477-89. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2011.628347] [PMID]

Usler E, Smith A, Weber C. A lag in speech motor coordination during sentence production is associated with stut-tering persistence in young children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2017; 60(1):51-61. [DOI:10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0367] [PMID] [PMCID]

Yaruss JS, Logan KJ. Evaluating rate, accuracy, and fluency of young children’s diadochokinetic productions: A pre-liminary investigation. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2002; 27(1):65-85. [DOI:10.1016/S0094-730X(02)00112-2]

Robbins J, Klee T. Clinical assessment of oropharyngeal motor development in young children. The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 1987; 52(3):271-7. [DOI:10.1044/jshd.5203.271] [PMID]

Botha A, Ras E, Abdoola S, Van der Linde J. Dysphonia in adults with developmental stuttering: A descriptive study.The South African Journal of Communication Disorders. 2017; 64(1):e1-7. [DOI:10.4102/sajcd.v64i1.347] [PMID] [PMCID]

Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Texas: Pearson; 1949. https://buros.org/pdfs/MMY-Teaching-Modules/Ventresco%2C%20N.%20-%20Assignment%20Description.pdf

Bakhtiar M, Seifpanahi S, Ansari H, Ghanadzade M, Packman A. Investigation of the reliability of the SSI-3 for pre-school Persian-speaking children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2010; 35(2):87-91. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2010.02.003] [PMID]

Soleymani Z, Amidfar M, Dadgar H, Jalaie S. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2014; 78(4):674-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.01.035] [PMID]

Soleymani Z, Mahmoodabadi N, Nouri MM. Language skills and phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and normal hearing. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2016; 83:16-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.01.013] [PMID]

Kazemi Y, Derakhshandeh F. [Exploring the Validity, Reliability and Normal Scores of Oral-Speech Motor Control Protocol in Farsi-Speaking Children in Isfahan (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2007; 8(2):50-6. http://rehabilitationj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-166-en.html

Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2013. [DOI:10.4324/9780203771587]

Files
IssueVol 15 No 3 (2021) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Published2021-06-30
Keywords
Phonological processing Speech motor control Children who stutter Stuttering

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Salehi S, Maroufizadeh S, Soleymani Z, Beheshti SZ, Bavandi S. Exploring the Relationship Between Speech Motor Control and Phonological Processing in Children Who Stutter and Typically Developed Children. jmr. 2021;15(3):119-126.