Research Article

The Significance of Semantic Hierarchy and Canonicity in Sentence Comprehension: A Study of Persian-speaking Patients With Alzheimer

Abstract

Introduction: A lot of research in diverse languages has tried to scrutinize the impact of canonicity upon the performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Regarding the gap in the Persian setting, this study tried to delve into the nature of this deficit in patients with Alzheimer.
Materials and Methods: This is a case series study, and our subjects included 2 Persian-speaking monolingual patients with Alzheimer and 5 healthy elderly individuals matched with each other according to parameters like educational degree, vernacular tongue, and homeland. The categories to be tested included subject agentive, subject experiencer, object experiencer, and object cleft constructions.
Results: The results of the sentence completion task demonstrated that problems would emerge when patients with Alzheimer try to comprehend the syntactic structures belonged to 2, 3, and 4 categories.
Conclusion: Our findings would demonstrate that patients with Alzheimer have many challenges when trying to map syntactic representation onto semantic realization. This type of deficit escalates when patients attempt to assign thematic roles to psychological predicates. As for the clinical implication of the research, it was recommended that the type of structures utilized by neuropsychiatrists for the communicative purpose be chosen from utterances that are in line with the mapping strategy.

References
1. Sims R, Hill M, Williams J. The multiplex model of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Feb 28:1-2.
2. Busche MA, Hyman BT. Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Aug 10:1-1.
3. Carmella P, Mansur L, Nitrini R. Language and communication disorders in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In B. Stemmer and H. A. Whitaker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, 2000, pp.463-473.
4. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN. Predicting probable Alzheimer’s disease using linguistic deficits and biomarkers. BMC bioinformatics. 2017 Dec 1;18(1):34.
5. Fraser KC, Meltzer JA, Rudzicz F. Linguistic features identify Alzheimer’s disease in narrative speech. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016 Jan 1;49(2):407-22.
6. Karlekar S, Niu T, Bansal M. Detecting linguistic characteristics of Alzheimer's dementia by interpreting neural models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.06440. 2018 Apr 17.
7. Chapman S, Highley A, Thompson J. "Discourse in fluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease: Linguistic and pragmatic considerations". Journal of Neurolinguistics. 1998; 11: 55-78.
8. Filiou RP, Bier N, Slegers A, Houzé B, Belchior P, Brambati SM. Connected speech assessment in the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a scoping review. Aphasiology. 2020 Jun 2;34(6):723-55.

9. Miller-Ott AE. “Just a heads up, my father has Alzheimer’s”: Changes in communication and identity of adult children of parents with Alzheimer’s disease. Health communication. 2020 Jan 2;35(1):119-26.

10. Lai Y, Pal H, Lin Y. To be semantically-impaired or to be syntactically impaired: Linguistic patterns in Chinese- speaking persons with or without dementia. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2009; 22: 465-73.
11. Grossman M., White-Devine T. Sentence comprehension in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language. 1998; 62: 186-204.
12. Small JA, Kemper S, Lyons K. Sentence repetition & processing resources in Alzheimer's disease. Brain & language. 2000; 75: 232-58.
13. Luzzi S, Baldinelli S, Ranaldi V, Fiori C, Plutino A, Fringuelli FM, Silvestrini M, Baggio G, Reverberi C. The neural bases of discourse semantic and pragmatic deficits in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex. 2020 Mar 31.
14. Sung JE, Choi S, Eom B, Yoo JK, Jeong JH. Syntactic Complexity as a Linguistic Marker to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2020 May 22;63(5):1416-29.
15. Choi H, Yi B. Effects of Syntactic Complexity and Sentence Repetition on Sentence Comprehension in Patients with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2019 Dec 31;24(4):986-95.
16. Marková J, Horváthová Ľ, Králová M, Cséfalvay Z. Sentence comprehension in Slovak‐speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2017 Jul;52(4):456-68.
17. Kempler D, Almor A, Tyler L, Anderson SA, Macdonald CM .Sentence comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison of off-line vs. On-line sentence processing. Brain and Language 1998; 64: 297-316.
18. Liu X, Wang W, Wang H, Sun Y. Sentence comprehension in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. PeerJ. 2019 Dec 3;7:e8181.

19. Lucena AT, Bhalla RK, Belfort Almeida Dos Santos TT, Dourado MC. The relationship between theory of mind and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2020 Mar 15;42(3):223-39.

20. Manouilidou C, Almedia RG. Canonicity in argument realization and verb semantic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. In S. Featherston and S. Winkler (eds.). The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics, (pp. 123-149). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2009, pp. 463-73.
21. Torr J, Stanojevic M, Steedman M, Cohen SB. Wide-coverage neural A* parsing for minimalist grammars. InProceedings of the 57th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics 2019 Jul (pp. 2486-2505).

22. Bickel C, Pantel J, Eysenbach K, Schröder J. Syntactic comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language. 2000 Feb 15;71(3):432-48.
23. Kim M, Thompson C. Verb deficit in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implication for Lexical Organization. Brain and Language. 2004; 88: 1-20.
24. Kljajevic V, Hatteland Somme J, Prieto Tedejo R, Laseca G. Comprehension of psychological predicates in Alzheimer’s disease. Suvremena lingvistika. 2020 Jul 30;46(89):49-69.
25.Yoo HM, Sung JE, Yoo HM, Sung JE. ERP Components Associated with Syntactic Ambiguity and Word Order Canonicity in Processing Sentence with Ditransitive Verb between Young and Elderly Adults. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2018 Sep 30;23(3):660-82.





References
1. Sims R, Hill M, Williams J. The multiplex model of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Feb 28:1-2.

2. Busche MA, Hyman BT. Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Aug 10:1-1.
3. Carmella P, Mansur L, Nitrini R. Language and communication disorders in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In B. Stemmer and H. A. Whitaker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, 2000, pp.463-473.
4. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN. Predicting probable Alzheimer’s disease using linguistic deficits and biomarkers. BMC bioinformatics. 2017 Dec 1;18(1):34.
5. Fraser KC, Meltzer JA, Rudzicz F. Linguistic features identify Alzheimer’s disease in narrative speech. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016 Jan 1;49(2):407-22.
6. Karlekar S, Niu T, Bansal M. Detecting linguistic characteristics of Alzheimer's dementia by interpreting neural models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.06440. 2018 Apr 17.
7. Chapman S, Highley A, Thompson J. "Discourse in fluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease: Linguistic and pragmatic considerations". Journal of Neurolinguistics. 1998; 11: 55-78.
8. Filiou RP, Bier N, Slegers A, Houzé B, Belchior P, Brambati SM. Connected speech assessment in the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a scoping review. Aphasiology. 2020 Jun 2;34(6):723-55.

9. Miller-Ott AE. “Just a heads up, my father has Alzheimer’s”: Changes in communication and identity of adult children of parents with Alzheimer’s disease. Health communication. 2020 Jan 2;35(1):119-26.

10. Lai Y, Pal H, Lin Y. To be semantically-impaired or to be syntactically impaired: Linguistic patterns in Chinese- speaking persons with or without dementia. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2009; 22: 465-73.
11. Grossman M., White-Devine T. Sentence comprehension in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language. 1998; 62: 186-204.
12. Small JA, Kemper S, Lyons K. Sentence repetition & processing resources in Alzheimer's disease. Brain & language. 2000; 75: 232-58.
13. Luzzi S, Baldinelli S, Ranaldi V, Fiori C, Plutino A, Fringuelli FM, Silvestrini M, Baggio G, Reverberi C. The neural bases of discourse semantic and pragmatic deficits in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex. 2020 Mar 31.
14. Sung JE, Choi S, Eom B, Yoo JK, Jeong JH. Syntactic Complexity as a Linguistic Marker to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2020 May 22;63(5):1416-29.
15. Choi H, Yi B. Effects of Syntactic Complexity and Sentence Repetition on Sentence Comprehension in Patients with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2019 Dec 31;24(4):986-95.
16. Marková J, Horváthová Ľ, Králová M, Cséfalvay Z. Sentence comprehension in Slovak‐speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2017 Jul;52(4):456-68.
17. Kempler D, Almor A, Tyler L, Anderson SA, Macdonald CM .Sentence comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison of off-line vs. On-line sentence processing. Brain and Language 1998; 64: 297-316.
18. Liu X, Wang W, Wang H, Sun Y. Sentence comprehension in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. PeerJ. 2019 Dec 3;7:e8181.

19. Lucena AT, Bhalla RK, Belfort Almeida Dos Santos TT, Dourado MC. The relationship between theory of mind and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2020 Mar 15;42(3):223-39.

20. Manouilidou C, Almedia RG. Canonicity in argument realization and verb semantic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. In S. Featherston and S. Winkler (eds.). The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics, (pp. 123-149). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2009, pp. 463-73.
21. Torr J, Stanojevic M, Steedman M, Cohen SB. Wide-coverage neural A* parsing for minimalist grammars. InProceedings of the 57th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics 2019 Jul (pp. 2486-2505).

22. Bickel C, Pantel J, Eysenbach K, Schröder J. Syntactic comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language. 2000 Feb 15;71(3):432-48.
23. Kim M, Thompson C. Verb deficit in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implication for Lexical Organization. Brain and Language. 2004; 88: 1-20.
24. Kljajevic V, Hatteland Somme J, Prieto Tedejo R, Laseca G. Comprehension of psychological predicates in Alzheimer’s disease. Suvremena lingvistika. 2020 Jul 30;46(89):49-69.
25.Yoo HM, Sung JE, Yoo HM, Sung JE. ERP Components Associated with Syntactic Ambiguity and Word Order Canonicity in Processing Sentence with Ditransitive Verb between Young and Elderly Adults. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2018 Sep 30;23(3):660-82.





References
1. Sims R, Hill M, Williams J. The multiplex model of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Feb 28:1-2.

2. Busche MA, Hyman BT. Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Aug 10:1-1.
3. Carmella P, Mansur L, Nitrini R. Language and communication disorders in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In B. Stemmer and H. A. Whitaker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, 2000, pp.463-473.
4. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN. Predicting probable Alzheimer’s disease using linguistic deficits and biomarkers. BMC bioinformatics. 2017 Dec 1;18(1):34.
5. Fraser KC, Meltzer JA, Rudzicz F. Linguistic features identify Alzheimer’s disease in narrative speech. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016 Jan 1;49(2):407-22.
6. Karlekar S, Niu T, Bansal M. Detecting linguistic characteristics of Alzheimer's dementia by interpreting neural models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.06440. 2018 Apr 17.
7. Chapman S, Highley A, Thompson J. "Discourse in fluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease: Linguistic and pragmatic considerations". Journal of Neurolinguistics. 1998; 11: 55-78.
8. Filiou RP, Bier N, Slegers A, Houzé B, Belchior P, Brambati SM. Connected speech assessment in the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a scoping review. Aphasiology. 2020 Jun 2;34(6):723-55.

9. Miller-Ott AE. “Just a heads up, my father has Alzheimer’s”: Changes in communication and identity of adult children of parents with Alzheimer’s disease. Health communication. 2020 Jan 2;35(1):119-26.

10. Lai Y, Pal H, Lin Y. To be semantically-impaired or to be syntactically impaired: Linguistic patterns in Chinese- speaking persons with or without dementia. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2009; 22: 465-73.
11. Grossman M., White-Devine T. Sentence comprehension in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language. 1998; 62: 186-204.
12. Small JA, Kemper S, Lyons K. Sentence repetition & processing resources in Alzheimer's disease. Brain & language. 2000; 75: 232-58.
13. Luzzi S, Baldinelli S, Ranaldi V, Fiori C, Plutino A, Fringuelli FM, Silvestrini M, Baggio G, Reverberi C. The neural bases of discourse semantic and pragmatic deficits in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex. 2020 Mar 31.
14. Sung JE, Choi S, Eom B, Yoo JK, Jeong JH. Syntactic Complexity as a Linguistic Marker to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2020 May 22;63(5):1416-29.
15. Choi H, Yi B. Effects of Syntactic Complexity and Sentence Repetition on Sentence Comprehension in Patients with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2019 Dec 31;24(4):986-95.
16. Marková J, Horváthová Ľ, Králová M, Cséfalvay Z. Sentence comprehension in Slovak‐speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2017 Jul;52(4):456-68.
17. Kempler D, Almor A, Tyler L, Anderson SA, Macdonald CM .Sentence comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison of off-line vs. On-line sentence processing. Brain and Language 1998; 64: 297-316.
18. Liu X, Wang W, Wang H, Sun Y. Sentence comprehension in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. PeerJ. 2019 Dec 3;7:e8181.

19. Lucena AT, Bhalla RK, Belfort Almeida Dos Santos TT, Dourado MC. The relationship between theory of mind and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2020 Mar 15;42(3):223-39.

20. Manouilidou C, Almedia RG. Canonicity in argument realization and verb semantic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. In S. Featherston and S. Winkler (eds.). The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics, (pp. 123-149). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2009, pp. 463-73.
21. Torr J, Stanojevic M, Steedman M, Cohen SB. Wide-coverage neural A* parsing for minimalist grammars. InProceedings of the 57th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics 2019 Jul (pp. 2486-2505).

22. Bickel C, Pantel J, Eysenbach K, Schröder J. Syntactic comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language. 2000 Feb 15;71(3):432-48.
23. Kim M, Thompson C. Verb deficit in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implication for Lexical Organization. Brain and Language. 2004; 88: 1-20.
24. Kljajevic V, Hatteland Somme J, Prieto Tedejo R, Laseca G. Comprehension of psychological predicates in Alzheimer’s disease. Suvremena lingvistika. 2020 Jul 30;46(89):49-69.
25.Yoo HM, Sung JE, Yoo HM, Sung JE. ERP Components Associated with Syntactic Ambiguity and Word Order Canonicity in Processing Sentence with Ditransitive Verb between Young and Elderly Adults. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2018 Sep 30;23(3):660-82.





References
1. Sims R, Hill M, Williams J. The multiplex model of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Feb 28:1-2.

2. Busche MA, Hyman BT. Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Aug 10:1-1.
3. Carmella P, Mansur L, Nitrini R. Language and communication disorders in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In B. Stemmer and H. A. Whitaker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, 2000, pp.463-473.
4. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN. Predicting probable Alzheimer’s disease using linguistic deficits and biomarkers. BMC bioinformatics. 2017 Dec 1;18(1):34.
5. Fraser KC, Meltzer JA, Rudzicz F. Linguistic features identify Alzheimer’s disease in narrative speech. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016 Jan 1;49(2):407-22.
6. Karlekar S, Niu T, Bansal M. Detecting linguistic characteristics of Alzheimer's dementia by interpreting neural models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.06440. 2018 Apr 17.
7. Chapman S, Highley A, Thompson J. "Discourse in fluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease: Linguistic and pragmatic considerations". Journal of Neurolinguistics. 1998; 11: 55-78.
8. Filiou RP, Bier N, Slegers A, Houzé B, Belchior P, Brambati SM. Connected speech assessment in the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a scoping review. Aphasiology. 2020 Jun 2;34(6):723-55.

9. Miller-Ott AE. “Just a heads up, my father has Alzheimer’s”: Changes in communication and identity of adult children of parents with Alzheimer’s disease. Health communication. 2020 Jan 2;35(1):119-26.

10. Lai Y, Pal H, Lin Y. To be semantically-impaired or to be syntactically impaired: Linguistic patterns in Chinese- speaking persons with or without dementia. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2009; 22: 465-73.
11. Grossman M., White-Devine T. Sentence comprehension in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language. 1998; 62: 186-204.
12. Small JA, Kemper S, Lyons K. Sentence repetition & processing resources in Alzheimer's disease. Brain & language. 2000; 75: 232-58.
13. Luzzi S, Baldinelli S, Ranaldi V, Fiori C, Plutino A, Fringuelli FM, Silvestrini M, Baggio G, Reverberi C. The neural bases of discourse semantic and pragmatic deficits in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex. 2020 Mar 31.
14. Sung JE, Choi S, Eom B, Yoo JK, Jeong JH. Syntactic Complexity as a Linguistic Marker to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2020 May 22;63(5):1416-29.
15. Choi H, Yi B. Effects of Syntactic Complexity and Sentence Repetition on Sentence Comprehension in Patients with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2019 Dec 31;24(4):986-95.
16. Marková J, Horváthová Ľ, Králová M, Cséfalvay Z. Sentence comprehension in Slovak‐speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2017 Jul;52(4):456-68.
17. Kempler D, Almor A, Tyler L, Anderson SA, Macdonald CM .Sentence comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison of off-line vs. On-line sentence processing. Brain and Language 1998; 64: 297-316.
18. Liu X, Wang W, Wang H, Sun Y. Sentence comprehension in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. PeerJ. 2019 Dec 3;7:e8181.

19. Lucena AT, Bhalla RK, Belfort Almeida Dos Santos TT, Dourado MC. The relationship between theory of mind and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2020 Mar 15;42(3):223-39.

20. Manouilidou C, Almedia RG. Canonicity in argument realization and verb semantic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. In S. Featherston and S. Winkler (eds.). The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics, (pp. 123-149). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2009, pp. 463-73.
21. Torr J, Stanojevic M, Steedman M, Cohen SB. Wide-coverage neural A* parsing for minimalist grammars. InProceedings of the 57th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics 2019 Jul (pp. 2486-2505).

22. Bickel C, Pantel J, Eysenbach K, Schröder J. Syntactic comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language. 2000 Feb 15;71(3):432-48.
23. Kim M, Thompson C. Verb deficit in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implication for Lexical Organization. Brain and Language. 2004; 88: 1-20.
24. Kljajevic V, Hatteland Somme J, Prieto Tedejo R, Laseca G. Comprehension of psychological predicates in Alzheimer’s disease. Suvremena lingvistika. 2020 Jul 30;46(89):49-69.
25.Yoo HM, Sung JE, Yoo HM, Sung JE. ERP Components Associated with Syntactic Ambiguity and Word Order Canonicity in Processing Sentence with Ditransitive Verb between Young and Elderly Adults. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2018 Sep 30;23(3):660-82.





References
1. Sims R, Hill M, Williams J. The multiplex model of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Feb 28:1-2.

2. Busche MA, Hyman BT. Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Aug 10:1-1.
3. Carmella P, Mansur L, Nitrini R. Language and communication disorders in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In B. Stemmer and H. A. Whitaker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, 2000, pp.463-473.
4. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN. Predicting probable Alzheimer’s disease using linguistic deficits and biomarkers. BMC bioinformatics. 2017 Dec 1;18(1):34.
5. Fraser KC, Meltzer JA, Rudzicz F. Linguistic features identify Alzheimer’s disease in narrative speech. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016 Jan 1;49(2):407-22.
6. Karlekar S, Niu T, Bansal M. Detecting linguistic characteristics of Alzheimer's dementia by interpreting neural models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.06440. 2018 Apr 17.
7. Chapman S, Highley A, Thompson J. "Discourse in fluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease: Linguistic and pragmatic considerations". Journal of Neurolinguistics. 1998; 11: 55-78.
8. Filiou RP, Bier N, Slegers A, Houzé B, Belchior P, Brambati SM. Connected speech assessment in the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a scoping review. Aphasiology. 2020 Jun 2;34(6):723-55.

9. Miller-Ott AE. “Just a heads up, my father has Alzheimer’s”: Changes in communication and identity of adult children of parents with Alzheimer’s disease. Health communication. 2020 Jan 2;35(1):119-26.

10. Lai Y, Pal H, Lin Y. To be semantically-impaired or to be syntactically impaired: Linguistic patterns in Chinese- speaking persons with or without dementia. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 2009; 22: 465-73.
11. Grossman M., White-Devine T. Sentence comprehension in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language. 1998; 62: 186-204.
12. Small JA, Kemper S, Lyons K. Sentence repetition & processing resources in Alzheimer's disease. Brain & language. 2000; 75: 232-58.
13. Luzzi S, Baldinelli S, Ranaldi V, Fiori C, Plutino A, Fringuelli FM, Silvestrini M, Baggio G, Reverberi C. The neural bases of discourse semantic and pragmatic deficits in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex. 2020 Mar 31.
14. Sung JE, Choi S, Eom B, Yoo JK, Jeong JH. Syntactic Complexity as a Linguistic Marker to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment From Normal Aging. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2020 May 22;63(5):1416-29.
15. Choi H, Yi B. Effects of Syntactic Complexity and Sentence Repetition on Sentence Comprehension in Patients with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2019 Dec 31;24(4):986-95.
16. Marková J, Horváthová Ľ, Králová M, Cséfalvay Z. Sentence comprehension in Slovak‐speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2017 Jul;52(4):456-68.
17. Kempler D, Almor A, Tyler L, Anderson SA, Macdonald CM .Sentence comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison of off-line vs. On-line sentence processing. Brain and Language 1998; 64: 297-316.
18. Liu X, Wang W, Wang H, Sun Y. Sentence comprehension in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. PeerJ. 2019 Dec 3;7:e8181.

19. Lucena AT, Bhalla RK, Belfort Almeida Dos Santos TT, Dourado MC. The relationship between theory of mind and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2020 Mar 15;42(3):223-39.

20. Manouilidou C, Almedia RG. Canonicity in argument realization and verb semantic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. In S. Featherston and S. Winkler (eds.). The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics, (pp. 123-149). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2009, pp. 463-73.
21. Torr J, Stanojevic M, Steedman M, Cohen SB. Wide-coverage neural A* parsing for minimalist grammars. InProceedings of the 57th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics 2019 Jul (pp. 2486-2505).

22. Bickel C, Pantel J, Eysenbach K, Schröder J. Syntactic comprehension deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language. 2000 Feb 15;71(3):432-48.
23. Kim M, Thompson C. Verb deficit in Alzheimer’s disease and agrammatism: Implication for Lexical Organization. Brain and Language. 2004; 88: 1-20.
24. Kljajevic V, Hatteland Somme J, Prieto Tedejo R, Laseca G. Comprehension of psychological predicates in Alzheimer’s disease. Suvremena lingvistika. 2020 Jul 30;46(89):49-69.
25.Yoo HM, Sung JE, Yoo HM, Sung JE. ERP Components Associated with Syntactic Ambiguity and Word Order Canonicity in Processing Sentence with Ditransitive Verb between Young and Elderly Adults. Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2018 Sep 30;23(3):660-82.
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IssueVol 15 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Published2021-03-13
Keywords
Alzheimer's disease Psychological tests Language tests

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1.
Azad O. The Significance of Semantic Hierarchy and Canonicity in Sentence Comprehension: A Study of Persian-speaking Patients With Alzheimer. jmr. 15(2):83-92.