Research Article

Test-retest reliability of EMG Beta-band intermuscular coherence of Non-specific chronic low back pain during Flexion-extension task

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and agreement of the Beta-band intermuscular coherence (Bb-IMC) as a clinical assessment tool for Non-Specific Chronic Low back pain (NS-CLBP) patients and healthy subjects by studying four phases of flexion-extension task; standing, flexion, relaxation and extension phases (F-ET).
Methods: Twenty-four men with NS-CLBP and 20 healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. All those subjects performed three trials of F-ET while the sEMG was recorded from the lumbar erector spinal, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles of both sides. Beta-band intermuscular coherence analysis was used to calculate the pool coherence and the pairwise coherence for all mentioned muscles. Afterward, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) for four phases of F-ET were also used to analyze the intrarater reliability and agreement of the measurements.
Results: The investigation of ICC, SEM and MDC showed that the reliability was moderate to a high level of reliability for pool and pairwise coherence of Bb-IMC in all mentioned muscles for four phases of flexion-extension task in NS-CLBP patients and healthy subjects. Yet, the agreement was low because the measurement error was relatively large.
Conclusion: Up until now, no studies have used the Bb-IMC method to study Low back pain which are carried out in our study to check the reliability of this new method. Our findings revealed that pool and pairwise coherence obtained during F-ET are moderate to a high level of reliability for using Bb-IMC and could be considered as a tool for the NS-CLBP patients’ assessment. Although the small sample size investigated, in clinical practice the using this measure to conclude the interaction of corticospinal in NS-CLBP and healthy subjects should help to improve the analysis. This requires including larger sample sizes in addition to studying other circumstances and functional movements such as lifting weight. Furthermore, more research appears to be warranted by the observed effectiveness of a particular intervention in modulation mechanisms of corticospinal tract function by Bb-IMC in NS-CLBP.

Woolf AD, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003; 81(9):646-56. [PMCID]

Maniadakis N, Gray A. The economic burden of back pain in the UK. Pain. 2000; 84(1):95-103. [DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00187-6]

Dillingham T. Evaluation and management of low back pain: An overview. State of the Art Reviews. 1995; 9:559-74.

Dankaerts W, Osullivan P, Burnett A, Straker L, Davey P, Gupta R. Discriminating healthy controls and two clinical subgroups of nonspecific chronic low back pain patients using trunk muscle activation and lumbosacral kinematics of postures and movements: A statistical classification model. Spine. 2009; 34(15):1610-8. [DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181aa6175]

Hartvigsen J, Hancock MJ, Kongsted A, Louw Q, Ferreira ML, Genevay S, et al. What low back pain is and why we need to pay attention. Lancet. 2018; 391(10137):2356-67. [DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30480-X]

Saragiotto BT, Maher CG, Hancock MJ, Koes BW. Subgrouping patients with nonspecific low back pain: hope or hype?. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2017; 47(2):44-8. [DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2017.0602]

Wand BM, Parkitny L, O’Connell NE, Luomajoki H, McAuley JH, Thacker M, et al. Cortical changes in chronic low back pain: Current state of the art and implications for clinical practice. Manual Therapy. 2011; 16(1):15-20. [DOI: 10.1016/j.math.2010.06.008]

Hodges PW. Changes in motor planning of feedforward postural responses of the trunk muscles in low back pain. Experimental Brain Research. 2001; 141(2):261-6. [DOI: 10.1007/s002210100873]

Chiou SY, Shih YF, Chou LW, McGregor AH, Strutton PH. Impaired neural drive in patients with low back pain. European Journal of Pain. 2014; 18(6):794-802. [DOI: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00428.x]

Tsao H, Danneels LA, Hodges PW. ISSLS prize winner: Smudging the motor brain in young adults with recurrent low back pain. Spine. 2011; 36(21):1721-7. [DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31821c4267]

Kim MH, Yoo WG, Choi BR. Differences between two subgroups of low back pain patients in lumbopelvic rotation and symmetry in the erector spinae and hamstring muscles during trunk flexion when standing. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2013; 23(2):387-93. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.11.010]

Colloca CJ, Hinrichs RN. The biomechanical and clinical significance of the lumbar erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon: A review of literature. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2005; 28(8):623-31. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2005.08.005]

Mohr M, Schn T, von Tscharner V, Nigg BM. Intermuscular coherence between surface EMG signals is higher for monopolar compared to bipolar electrode configurations. Frontiers in Physiology. 2018; 9:566. [DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00566] [PMCID]

Aguiar SA, Baker SN, Gant K, Bohorquez J, Thomas CK. Spasms after spinal cord injury show low-frequency intermuscular coherence. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2018; 120(4):1765-71. [DOI: 10.1152/jn.00112.2018]

Nojima I, Watanabe T, Saito K, Tanabe S, Kanazawa H. Modulation of EMG-EMG coherence in a choice stepping task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2018; 12:50. [DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00050]

Boonstra TW. The potential of corticomuscular and intermuscular coherence for research on human motor control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2013; 7:855. [DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00855]

De Marchis C, Severini G, Castronovo AM, Schmid M, Conforto S. Intermuscular coherence contributions in synergistic muscles during pedaling. Experimental Brain Research. 2015; 233(6):1907-19. [DOI: 10.1007/s00221-015-4262-4]

Watanabe T, Saito K, Ishida K, Tanabe S, Nojima I. Coordination of plantar flexor muscles during bipedal and unipedal stances in young and elderly adults. Experimental Brain Research. 2018; 236(5):1229-39. [DOI: 10.1007/s00221-018-5217-3]

Choudhury S, Singh R, Chatterjee P, Trivedi S, Shubham S, Baker MR, et al. Abnormal blink reflex and inter-muscular coherence in writer’s cramp. Frontiers in Neurology. 2018; 9:517. [DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00517] [PMCID]

Farmer S. Rhythmicity, synchronization and binding in human and primate motor systems. The Journal of Physiology. 1998; 509(Pt 1):3-14. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.003bo.x]

Apkarian AV, Baliki MN, Geha, PY. Towards a theory of chronic pain. Progress in Neurobiology. 2009; 87(2):81-97. [DOI: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.09.018]

Tracey I, Bushnell MC. How neuroimaging studies have challenged us to rethink: Is chronic pain a disease?. The Journal of Pain. 2009; 10(11):1113-20. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2009.09.001]

Crémoux S, Charissou C, Tallet J, Abade-Moreira A, Dal Maso F, Amarantini D. T80. Alteration of intermuscular coherence in synergistic muscle pairs during actual elbow flexion contractions after cervical spinal cord injury. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2018; 129(1):e33. [DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2018.04.081]

Ostelo RWJ, Deyo RA, Stratford P, Waddell G, Croft P, Von Korff M, et al. Interpreting change scores for pain and functional status in low back pain: Towards international consensus regarding minimal important change. Spine. 2008; 33(1):90-4. [DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31815e3a10]

Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, Hurwitz EL, Brook RH. Spinal manipulation for low-back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1992; 117(7):590-8. [DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-117-7-590]

Seraj MSM, Sarrafzadeh J, Maroufi N, Takamjani IE, Ahmadi A, Negahban H. The ratio of lumbar to hip motion during the trunk flexion in patients with mechanical chronic low back pain according to o’sullivan classification system: A cross-sectional study. Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2018; 6(6):560-9. [PMCID]

Stegeman DF, Hermens HG. Standards for surface electromyography: The European project “Surface EMG for non-invasive assessment of muscles (SENIAM)”. Enschede: Roessingh Research and Development. 2007:108-12.

Taylor JR, Twomey LT. Physical therapy of the low back. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

Dickin DC, McClain MA, Hubble RP, Doan JB, Sessford D. Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations. Human Movement Science. 2012; 31(5):1238-46. [DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2011.12.007]

Clark BC, Russ DW, Nakazawa M, France CR, Walkowski S, Law TD, et al. A randomized control trial to determine the effectiveness and physiological effects of spinal manipulation and spinal mobilization compared to each other and a sham condition in patients with chronic low back pain: Study protocol for The RELIEF Study. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 2018; 70:41-52. [DOI: 10.1016/j.cct.2018.05.012]

Amjad AM, Halliday DM, Rosenberg JR, Conway BA. An extended difference of coherence test for comparing and combining several independent coherence estimates: Theory and application to the study of motor units and physiological tremor. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 1997; 73(1):69-79. [DOI: 10.1016/s0165-0270(96)02214-5]

Chang YJ, Chou CC, Chan HL, Hsu MJ, Yeh MY, Fang CY, et al. Increases of quadriceps inter-muscular cross-correlation and coherence during exhausting stepping exercise. Sensors. 2012; 12(12):16353-67. [DOI: 10.3390/s121216353]

Castronovo AM, De Marchis C, Schmid M, Conforto S, Severini G. Effect of task failure on intermuscular coherence measures in synergistic muscles. Applied Bionics and Biomechanics. 2018; 2018:4759232. [DOI: 10.1155/2018/4759232]

Welch P. The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: A method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics. 1967; 15(2):70-3. [DOI: 10.1109/TAU.1967.1161901]

Laine CM, Valero-Cuevas FJ. Intermuscular coherence reflects functional coordination. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2017; 118(3):1775-83. [DOI: 10.1152/jn.00204.2017] [PMCID]

Rosenberg JR, Amjad AM, Breeze P, Brillinger DR, Halliday DM. The Fourier approach to the identification of functional coupling between neuronal spike trains. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 1989; 53(1):1-31. [DOI: 10.1016/0079-6107(89)90004-7]

de Vet HCW, Terwee CB, Knol DL, Bouter LM. When to use agreement versus reliability measures. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2006; 59(10):1033-9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2005.10.015]

Kottner J, Audig L, Brorson S, Donner A, Gajewski BJ, Hrobjartsson A, et al. Guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement studies (GRRAS) were proposed. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2011; 48(6):661-71. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.01.016]

Beckerman H, Roebroeck ME, Lankhorst GJ, Becher JG, Bezemer PD, Verbeek AL. Smallest real difference, a link between reproducibility and responsiveness. Quality of Life Research. 2001; 10(7):571-8. [DOI: 10.1023/a:1013138911638]

Wagner JM, Rhodes JA, Patten C. Reproducibility and minimal detectable change of three-dimensional kinematic analysis of reaching tasks in people with hemiparesis after stroke. Physical Therapy. 2008; 88(5):652-63. [DOI: 10.2522/ptj.20070255]

Paalanne NP, Korpelainen R, Taimela SP, Remes J, Salakka M, Karppinen JI. Reproducibility and reference values of inclinometric balance and isometric trunk muscle strength measurements in Finnish young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2009; 23(5):1618-26. [DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a3cdfc]

Johnson KD, Kim K-M, Yu B-K, Saliba SA, Grindstaff TL. Reliability of thoracic spine rotation range-of-motion measurements in healthy adults. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012; 47(1):52-60. [DOI: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.1.52] [PMCID]

Atkinson G, Nevill AM. Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Medicine. 1998; 26(4):217-38. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-199826040-00002]

Weir JP. Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005; 19(1):231-40. [DOI: 10.1519/15184.1]

Spedden ME, Nielsen JB, Geertsen SS. Oscillatory corticospinal activity during static contraction of ankle muscles is reduced in healthy old versus young adults. Neural Plasticity. 2018; 2018:3432649. [DOI: 10.1155/2018/3432649]

Stegeman DF, van de Ven WJM, van Elswijk GA, Oostenveld R, Kleine BU. The alpha-motoneuron pool as transmitter of rhythmicities in cortical motor drive. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2010; 121(10):1633-42. [DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.03.052]

Ward NJ, Farmer SF, Berthouze L, Halliday DM. Rectification of EMG in low force contractions improves detection of motor unit coherence in the beta-frequency band. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2013; 110(8):1744-50. [DOI: 10.1152/jn.00296.2013] [PMCID]

Halliday DM, Farmer SF. On the need for rectification of surface EMG. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2010; 103(6):3547. [DOI: 10.1152/jn.00222.2010]

Neto OP, Christou EA. Rectification of the EMG signal impairs the identification of oscillatory input to the muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2010; 103(2):1093-103. [DOI: 10.1152/jn.00792.2009]

Files
IssueVol 15 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Published2021-03-15
Keywords
Non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP) Flexion-extension task (F-ET) Beta-band intermuscular coherence (Bb-IMC) Pool coherence (PC) and the pairwise coherence (PWC).

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Ghazi S, Hadian Rasanani MR, Shadmehr A, Talebian S, Olyaei G, Hajouj E. Test-retest reliability of EMG Beta-band intermuscular coherence of Non-specific chronic low back pain during Flexion-extension task. jmr. 15(2):63-72.