The Effect of Visual and Tennis Training on Perceptual-Motor Skill and Learning of Forehand Drive in Table Tennis Players

  • Fahimeh Basiri ORCID Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences in Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Alireza Farsi ORCID Mail Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences in Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Behrooz Abdoli Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences in Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Maryam Kavyani Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences in Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords:
Depth perception, Anticipation, Decision making, Eye-hand coordination, Acquisition, Retention, Motor learning

Abstract

Introduction: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of visual and skill training on learning forehand drive in table tennis and motor-perceptual abilities (reaction time, coincidence-anticipation timing, eye-hand coordination, and depth perception).
Materials and Methods: Forty volunteer female students (Mean±SD age: 21.50±0.78 years) were selected and randomly assigned to one of four groups (each group had 10 participants): visual and tennis training group, visual training group, tennis training group, and control group. Motor perceptual abilities (reaction time, coincidence-anticipation timing, eye-hand coordination, and depth perception) and forehand drive performance were measured before and after the training period, and also after 24 h retention period. After the pretest, including the accuracy of the kicks test for assessment of forehand drive in table tennis and motor-perceptual test, the experimental groups underwent four weeks (three sessions per week) of visual training, table tennis forehand training, or both. The control group followed their normal daily life for the whole study period. Then, they participated in the posttest and 24 h later in the retention test of kick accuracy.
Results: The results revealed that visual and table tennis training, visual training, and table tennis training had a significant effect on the reaction time (P=0.001), coincidence-anticipation timing (P=0.001) and eye-hand coordination (error time) (P=0.01). Moreover, visual and tennis training and table tennis training had a significant effect on the acquisition (P=0.001) and retention of forehand drive (P=0.005). Besides, the post hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed that visual and tennis training had a more significant impact on the learning forehand drive. Visual training and tennis training had a significant effect on eye-hand coordination (number of errors). The three types of training programs were not effective in the depth of perception.
Conclusion: Visual training can be used as a supplementary program in the athletes’ training schedule.

References

Magill R, Anderson D. Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications. 10th ed. New York City: McGraw-Hill Higher Education; 2013. https://books.google.com/books?id=KXYgAAAAQBAJ&dq
Paul M, Biswas SK, Sandhu JS. Role of sports vision and eye hand coordination training in performance of table tennis players. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. 2011; 5(2):106-16. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228488499
Jerath R, Crawford MW, Barnes VA. Functional representation of vision within the mind: A visual consciousness model based in 3D default space. Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas. 2015; 9(1):45-56. [DOI:10.1016/j.jmhi.2015.02.001]
Christenson GN, Winkelstein AM. Visual skills of athletes versus nonathletes: Development of a sports vision testing battery. Journal of the American Optometric Association. 1988; 59(9):666-75. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1989-21075-001
Erickson GB, Citek K, Cove M, Wilczek J, Linster C, Bjarnason B, et al. Reliability of a computer-based system for measuring visual performance skills. Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association. 2011; 82(9):528-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.optm.2011.01.012] [PMID]
Seidel O, Ragert P. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of primary motor cortex on reaction time and tapping performance: A comparison between athletes and non-athletes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2019; 13:103. [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2019.00103] [PMID] [PMCID]
Cross ES, Stadler W, Parkinson J, Schütz‐Bosbach S, Prinz W. The influence of visual training on predicting complex action sequences. Human Brain Mapping. 2013; 34(2):467-86. [DOI:10.1002/hbm.21450] [PMID]
Abernethy B. Training the visual-perceptual skills of athletes: Insights from the study of motor expertise. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1996; 24(6_suppl):S89-S92. [DOI:10.1177/036354659602406S24]
Tate B, Paul M, Jaspal S. The impact of visual skills training program on batting performance in cricketers. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences. 2008; 2(1):17-23. https://www.sjss.sportsacademy.edu.rs/archive/details/the-impact-of-visual-skills-training-program-on-batting-performance-in-cricketers-23.html
Çetin O, Beyleroğlu M, Bağış Y, Suna G. The effect of the exercises brain on boxers› eye-hand coordination, dynamic balance and visual attention performance. Physical Education Of Students. 2018; 22(3):112-9. [DOI:10.15561/20755279.2018.0301]
Kluka DA. Visual skills: Considerations in learning motor skills for sport. ASAHPERD Journal. 1991; 14(1):41-3. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Kluka+D.+Visual+skills%3A+Considerations+in+learning+motor+skills+for+sport.+Asahperd+Journal.+1991%3B+14%281%29%3A41-3.&btnG=
Pizzera A, Raab M. Perceptual judgments of sports officials are influenced by their motor and visual experience. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2012; 24(1):59-72. [DOI:10.1080/10413200.2011.608412]
Stine CD, Arterburn MR. Vision and sports: A review of the literature. Journal of the American Optometric Association. 1982; 53(8):627-33. [PMID]
Wood Joanne M, Abernethy B. An assessment of the efficacy of sports vision training programs. Optometry and Vision Science. 1997; 74(8):646-59. [DOI:10.1097/00006324-199708000-00026] [PMID]
Abernethy B, Wood JM. Do generalized visual training programmes for sport really work? An experimental investigation. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2001; 19(3):203-22. [DOI:10.1080/026404101750095376] [PMID]
West K, Bressan E. The effects of a general versus specific visual skills training program on accuracy in judging length-of-ball in cricket. International Journal of Sports Vision. 1996; 3(1):41-5. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q
Di Russo F, Pitzalis S, Spinelli D. Fixation stability and saccadic latency in elite shooters. Vision Research. 2003; 43(17):1837-45. [DOI:10.1016/S0042-6989(03)00299-2]
du Toit PJ, Krüger PE, Fowler KF, Govender C, Clark J. Influence of sports vision techniques on adult male rugby players. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences. 2010; 16(3):510-7. [DOI:10.4314/ajpherd.v16i3.60931]
Hopwood MJ, Mann DL, Farrow D, Nielsen T. Does visual-perceptual training augment the fielding performance of skilled cricketers? International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 2011; 6(4):523-35. [DOI:10.1260/1747-9541.6.4.523]
Abernethy B. Selective attention in fast ball sports. II: Expert novice differences. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 1987; 19(4):7-16. https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:276055
Knoblich G, Flach R. Predicting the effects of actions: Interactions of perception and action. Psychological Science. 2001; 12(6):467-72. [DOI:10.1111/1467-9280.00387] [PMID]
Wilson TA, Falkel J. SportsVision: Training for better performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=8AMHnqQHWBYC&dq
Williams AM, Ward P, Knowles JM, Smeeton NJ. Anticipation skill in a real-world task: measurement, training, and transfer in tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied. 2002; 8(4):259-70. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.8.4.259] [PMID]
Krzepota J, Zwierko T, Puchalska-Niedbał L, Markiewicz M, Florkiewicz B, Lubiński W. The efficiency of a visual skills training program on visual search performance. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2015; 46:231-40. [DOI:10.1515/hukin-2015-0051] [PMID] [PMCID]
Turvey M, Carello C. The ecological approach to perceiving-acting: A pictorial essay. Acta Psychologica. 1986; 63(1-3):133-55. [DOI:10.1016/0001-6918(86)90060-0]
Cavanagh P. Visual cognition. Vision Research. 2011; 51(13):1538-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2011.01.015] [PMID] [PMCID]
Campher J. The role of visual skills and its impact on skill performance of cricket players [MSc. thesis]. Pretoria: University of Pretoria; 2009. https://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/28869
Yuan Y, Xu F, Chin MK, So R. Hand-eye co-ordination and visual reaction time in elite badminton players and gymnasts. New Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine. 1995; 23:19. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q
Davlin CD, Sands WA, Shultz BB. The role of vision in control of orientation in a back tuck somersault. Motor Control. 2001; 5(4):337-46. [DOI:10.1123/mcj.5.4.337] [PMID]
Published
2020-05-28
How to Cite
1.
Basiri F, Farsi A, Abdoli B, Kavyani M. The Effect of Visual and Tennis Training on Perceptual-Motor Skill and Learning of Forehand Drive in Table Tennis Players. jmr. 14(1):21-32.
Section
Research Article(s)