The Investigation of Sports Injuries in Iranian Handball Premier League

  • Hashem Piri ORCID Mail Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohamad Hossein Alizadeh ORCID Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
  • Khosrow Nasiri Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords:
Incidence, Injuries, Handball

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism and incidence of sports injuries in male handball players of the Iran premier league.
Materials and Methods: The study data were collected by an injury report form filled out based on the video analysis. A total of 46 out of 90 videos of matches were analyzed. The statistical population of this study consisted 120 players of ten teams. Concerning this point that data were non-parametric, the Chi-squared test (P<0.05) was used to analyze the gathered data.
Results: Mean±SD height, weight, and age of the handball players were 184.3±6.5 cm, 85.2±8.5 kg, 23.4±4.2 years, respectively. A total of 105 injuries were recorded; this rate is equal to 164.5 injuries per 1000 h of competition. Most injuries occurred in lower extremities (39.2%), especially in the knee (21%), (χ2=26.92, P=0.001). The injury rate among back players (54.1%) was higher compared to other players (χ2=26.95, P=0.001). The difference in the type of contact that resulted in injury was statistically significant (χ2=60.40, P=0.001). The main mechanisms of injury in different playing positions were blocking (23.8%), being blocked (21%), and face hitting with hand (18.1%) (χ2=1.05, P=0.001). The rate of injury in the dominant side (70.4%) was significantly higher than the non-dominant side (29.6%), (χ2=8.96, P=0.003).
Conclusion: Among handball players of the Iranian premier league, most of the injuries occurred in the knee and ankle regions. Back players suffered more injuries in comparison with other players. Also, blocking was the dominant mechanism of injury.

References

Laver L, Myklebust G. Handball injuries: Epidemiology and injury characterization. In: Doral M, Karlsson J, editors. Sports Injuries: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 2781-805. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-36569-0_287]
Junge A, Langevoort G, Pipe A, Peytavin A, Wong F, Mountjoy M, et al. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006; 34(4):565-76. [DOI:10.1177/0363546505281807] [PMID]
Oehlert K, Drescher W, Petersen W, Zantop T, Gross V, Hassenpflug J. [Injuries in Olympic handball tournaments: A video analysis (German)]. Sportverletzung Sportschaden. 2004; 18(2):80-4. [DOI:10.1055/s-2004-813031] [PMID]
Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Injury pattern in youth team handball: A comparison of two prospective registration methods. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2006; 16(6):426-32. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00484.x] [PMID]
Langevoort G, Myklebust G, Dvorak J, Junge A. Handball injuries during major international tournaments. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2007; 17(4):400-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00587.x]
Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Holm R, Froberg K. Comparison of two intervention programmes in young female players in European handball-with and without ankle disc. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2003; 13(6):371-5. [DOI:10.1046/j.1600-0838.2003.00336.x] [PMID]
Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Holme I, Bahr R. Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: Cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005; 330(7489):449. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.38330.632801.8F] [PMID] [PMCID]
Fagerli UM, Lereim I, Sahlin Y. [Injuries in handball players (Norwegian)]. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, ny Raekke. 1990; 110(4):475-8. https://europepmc.org/article/med/2309195
Jørgensen U. Epidemiology of injuries in typical Scandinavian team sports. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1984; 18(2):59-63. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.18.2.59] [PMID] [PMCID]
Lindblad BE, Høy K, Terkelsen CJ, Helleland HE, Terkelsen CJ. Handball injuries: An epidemiologic and socioeconomic study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1992; 20(4):441-4. [DOI:10.1177/036354659202000413] [PMID]
Strand T, Tvedte R, Engebretsen L, Tegnander A. [Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in handball playing. Mechanisms and incidence of injuries (Norwegian)]. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, ny Raekke. 1990; 110(17):2222-5. [PMID]
Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Lundgaard B, Rosendahl M, Froberg K. Prevention of injuries in young female players in European team handball. A prospective intervention study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 1999; 9(1):41-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.1999.tb00205.x] [PMID]
Seil R, Rupp S, Tempelhof S, Kohn D. Sports injuries in team handball. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1998; 26(5):681-7. [DOI:10.1177/03635465980260051401] [PMID]
Dirx M, Bouter LM, de Geus GH. Aetiology of handball injuries: A case-control study. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1992; 26(3):121-4. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.26.3.121] [PMID] [PMCID]
Papacostas ET, Malliaropoulos N. Athletic injuries in team handball: A two-year study of a professional team. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2001; 33(5):S185. [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200105001-01044]
Petersen W, Braun C, Bock W, Schmidt K, Weimann A, Drescher W, et al. A controlled prospective case control study of a prevention training program in female team handball players: The German experience. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. 2005; 125(9):614. [DOI:10.1007/s00402-005-0793-7] [PMID]
Reckling C, Zantop T, Petersen W. [Epidemiology of injuries in juvenile handball players (German)]. Sportverletzung Sportschaden. 2003; 17(3):112-7. [DOI:10.1055/s-2003-42149] [PMID]
Lee Y, Nakagawa T, Miura T. [A study of sports injuries and behavior of handball players seeking medical advice after the injury I: Abut the injury situation Japanese and Korean teams (Japanese)]. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. 1998; 47(5):517-24. [DOI:10.7600/jspfsm1949.47.517]
Myklebust G, Maehlum S, Engebretsen L, Strand T, Solheim E. Registration of cruciate ligament injuries in Norwegian top level team handball. A prospective study covering two seasons. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 1997; 7(5):289-92. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.1997.tb00155.x] [PMID]
Asembo JM, Wekesa M. Injury pattern during team handball competition in east Africa. East African Medical Journal. 1998; 75(2):113-6. [PMID]
van Mechelen W. Running injuries. Sports Medicine. 1992; 14(5):320-35. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-199214050-00004] [PMID]
Fuller CW, Ekstrand J, Junge A, Andersen TE, Bahr R, Dvorak J, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2006; 16(2):83-92. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00528.x] [PMID]
Hawkins RD, Fuller CW. A prospective epidemiological study of injuries in four English professional football clubs. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1999; 33(3):196-203. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.33.3.196] [PMID] [PMCID]
Junge A, Dvorak J, Graf-Baumann T, Peterson L. Football injuries during FIFA tournaments and the Olympic Games, 1998-2001: Development and implementation of an injury-reporting system. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 32(1_suppl):80-9. [DOI:10.1177/0363546503261245] [PMID]
Junge A, Dvorak J. Influence of definition and data collection on the incidence of injuries in football. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000; 28(5_suppl):40-6. [DOI:10.1177/28.suppl_5.s-40] [PMID]
Visnapuu M, Jürimäe T. Relations of anthropometric parameters with scores on basic and specific motor tasks in young handball players. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2009; 108(3):670-6. [DOI:10.2466/pms.108.3.670-676] [PMID]
Junge A, Rösch D, Peterson L, Graf-Baumann T, Dvorak J. Prevention of soccer injuries: A prospective intervention study in youth amateur players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2002; 30(5):652-9. [DOI:10.1177/03635465020300050401] [PMID]
Tsigilis N, Hatzimanouil D. Injuries in handball: Examination of the risk factors. European Journal of Sport Science. 2005; 5(3):137-42. [DOI:10.1080/17461390500221610]
Andrén-Sandberg Å, Lindstrand A. Injuries sustained in junior league handboll: A prospective study of validity in the registration of sports injuries. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine. 1982; 10(3):101-4. [DOI:10.1177/140349488201000306] [PMID]
Hoeberigs J, van Galen WCC, Philipsen H. Pattern of injury in handball and comparison of injured versus noninjured handball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1986; 7(06):333-7. [DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1025787] [PMID]
Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Brækken IH, Skjølberg A, Olsen OE, Bahr R. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female team handball players: A prospective intervention study over three seasons. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2003; 13(2):71-8. [DOI:10.1097/00042752-200303000-00002] [PMID]
Rozzi SL, Lephart SM, Gear WS, Fu FH. Knee joint laxity and neuromuscular characteristics of male and female soccer and basketball players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1999; 27(3):312-9. [DOI:10.1177/03635465990270030801] [PMID]
Wekesa M, Njororai WWN, Madaga EL, Asembo JM. A comparative analysis of injuries in handball, hockey, volleyball and soccer in Kenya. African Journal of Health Sciences. 2001; 8(1-2):70-7. [PMID]
Nielsen A, Yde J. An epidemiologic and traumatologic study of injuries in handball. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1988; 9(05):341-4. [DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1025037] [PMID]
Olsen O, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Holme I, Bahr R. Relationship between floor type and risk of ACL injury in team handball. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2003; 13(5):299-304. [DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00329.x] [PMID]
Vlak T, Pivalica D. Handball: The beauty or the beast. Croatian Medical Journal. 2004; 45(5):526-30. [PMID]
Wedderkopp N, Kaltoft M, Lundgaard B, Rosendahl M, Froberg K. Injuries in young female players in European team handball. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 1997; 7(6):342-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.1997.tb00164.x] [PMID]
Ohnjec K, Vuleta D, Milanović D, Gruić I. Performance indicators of teams at the 2003 world handball championship for women in Croatia. Kinesiology. 2008; 40(1):69-79. https://hrcak.srce.hr/24835
Liu SH, Al‐Shaikh R, Panossian V, Yang RS, Nelson SD, Soleiman N, et al. Primary immunolocalization of estrogen and progesterone target cells in the human anterior cruciate ligament. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 1996; 14(4):526-33. [DOI:10.1002/jor.1100140405] [PMID]
Published
2020-05-28
How to Cite
1.
Piri H, Alizadeh MH, Nasiri K. The Investigation of Sports Injuries in Iranian Handball Premier League. jmr. 14(1):11-20.
Section
Research Article(s)