Association Between Cognitive Function and Mechanical Pattern of Landing
Introduction: In examining the factors affecting sports injuries, the emphasis is always on physical variables, while cognitive and psychological characteristics can also be effective. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sustained attention as a neurocognitive function and landing error as a mechanical factor associated with lower limb injuries.
Materials and Methods: 44 female basketball players aged 18-25 years at the national league level participated in this study. The participants were assessed using the continuous performance test, and their landing-jumping was evaluated by the landing error scoring system in two conditions of high and low cognitive load.
Results: The results showed that people’s landing errors increased significantly as a result of increased cognitive needs (P=0.0001). Also, the findings revealed a positive correlation between omission and commission errors with landing error scores in both low and high cognitive load conditions (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Sustained attention could predict the landing error score that is considered a key risk factor of lower limb injuries. It is recommended that multiple cognitive and physical assessments be used to identify athletes at risk of injury. Hence, cognitive enhancement protocols may be effective along with physical preparation programs.
2. Verhagen EALM, van Stralen MM, van Mechelen W. Behaviour, the key factor for sports injury prevention. Sports Medicine. 2010; 40(11):899-906. [DOI:10.2165/11536890-000000000-00000] [PMID]
3. Armatas V, Chondrou E, Yiannakos A, Galazoulas C, Velkopoulos C. Psychological aspects of rehabilitation following serious athletic injuries with special reference to goal setting: A review study. Physical Training. 2007; 8(1):1-15. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303364190
4. Arendt EA, Agel J, Dick R. Anterior cruciate ligament injury patterns among collegiate men and women. Journal of Athletic Training. 1999; 34(2):86-92. [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Onate J, Cortes N, Welch C, Van Lunen B. Expert versus novice interrater reliability and criterion validity of the landing error scoring system. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2010; 19(1):41-56. [DOI:10.1123/jsr.19.1.41] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Gribble PA, Delahunt E, Bleakley C, Caulfield B, Docherty C, Fourchet F, et al. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: A position statement of the International Ankle Consortium. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014; 49(1):121-7. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-49.1.14] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Makinejad MD, Abu Osman NA, Abas W, Bakar WA, Bayat M. Preliminary analysis of knee stress in full extension landing. Clinics. 2013; 68(9):1180-8. [DOI:10.6061/clinics/2013(09)02]
8. Ferretti A, Papandrea P, Conteduca F, Mariani PP. Knee ligament injuries in volleyball players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1992; 20(2):203-7. [DOI:10.1177/036354659202000219] [PMID]
9. Gray J, Taunton J, McKenzie D, Clement D, McConkey J, Davidson R. A survey of injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee in female basketball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1985; 6(06):314-6. [DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1025861] [PMID]
10. Zhang L-Q, Shiavi RG, Limbird TJ, Minorik JM. Six degrees-of-freedom kinematics of ACL deficient knees during locomotion-compensatory mechanism. Gait & Posture. 2003; 17(1):34-42. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(02)00052-8]
11. DiStefano LJ, Padua DA, DiStefano MJ, Marshall SW. The landing error scoring system predicts non-contact injury in youth soccer players: 2973. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2009; 41(5):520-1. [DOI:10.1249/01.MSS.0000356137.20436.e0]
12. Steffen K, Pensgaard A, Bahr R. Self‐reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2009; 19(3):442-51. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00797.x] [PMID]
13. Hesami P, Balouchy R, Ghasemian M. The relative contribution of cognitive and physical components in volleyball injuries prediction. Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences. 2020; (In Press):e96303. [DOI:10.5812/jcrps.96303]
14. Shibata S, Takemura M, Miyakawa S. The influence of differences in neurocognitive function on lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting motion. Physical Therapy Research. 2018; 2018:E9938. [DOI:10.1298/ptr.E9938] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Johnson U, Ivarsson A. Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: Prediction, prevention and future research directions. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2017; 16:89-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.04.023] [PMID]
16. Boden BP, Sheehan FT, Torg JS, Hewett TE. Non-contact ACL injuries: Mechanisms and risk factors. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2010; 18(9):520-7. [DOI:10.5435/00124635-201009000-00003] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Wilkerson GB. Neurocognitive reaction time predicts lower extremity sprains and strains. International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training. 2012; 17(6):4-9. [DOI:10.1123/ijatt.17.6.4]
18. Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, Samitier G, Romero D, Lázaro-Haro C, et al. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2009; 17(7):705-29. [DOI:10.1007/s00167-009-0813-1] [PMID]
19. Dault MC, Frank JS, Allard F. Influence of a visuo-spatial, verbal and central executive working memory task on postural control. Gait & posture. 2001; 14(2):110-6. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00113-8]
20. Swanik CB, Covassin T, Stearne DJ, Schatz P. The relationship between neurocognitive function and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 35(6):943-8. [DOI:10.1177/0363546507299532] [PMID]
21. Sternberg RJ, Sternberg K. Cognitive psychology: Nelson Education, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 2016.
22. Diamond A. Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology. 2013; 64:135-68. [DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Pashler H. Attention. New York. Psychology Press; 2016.
24. Vestberg T, Reinebo G, Maurex L, Ingvar M, Petrovic P. Core executive functions are associated with success in young elite soccer players. PloS One. 2017; 12(2):e0170845. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170845] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Olsen O-E, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: A systematic video analysis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 32(4):1002-12. [DOI:10.1177/0363546503261724] [PMID]
26. Riccio CA, Reynolds CR, Lowe PA. Clinical applications of continuous performance tests: Measuring attention and impulsive responding in children and adults. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2001.
27. Padua DA, Marshall SW, Boling MC, Thigpen CA, Garrett Jr WE, Beutler AI. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics: The JUMP-ACL study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009; 37(10):1996-2002. [DOI:10.1177/0363546509343200] [PMID]
28. Padua DA, DiStefano LJ, Beutler AI, De La Motte SJ, DiStefano MJ, Marshall SW. The landing error scoring system as a screening tool for an anterior cruciate ligament injury-prevention program in elite-youth soccer athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2015; 50(6):589-95. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-50.1.10] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Padua DA, Boling MC, DiStefano LJ, Onate JA, Beutler AI, Marshall SW. Reliability of the landing error scoring system-real time, a clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2011; 20(2):145-56. [DOI:10.1123/jsr.20.2.145] [PMID]
30. Hilbert S, Nakagawa TT, Puci P, Zech A, Bühner M. The digit span backwards task: Verbal and visual cognitive strategies in working memory assessment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2015; 31(3):174-80. [DOI:10.1027/1015-5759/a000223]
31. Magill R, Anderson D. Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications. 298-300. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017.
32. Vaughan RS, Laborde S. Attention, working-memory control, working-memory capacity, and sport performance: The moderating role of athletic expertise. European Journal of Sport Science. 2020:1-10. [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2020.1739143] [PMID]
33. Williams JM, Andersen MB. Psychosocial influences on central and peripheral vision and reaction time during demanding tasks. Behavioral Medicine. 1997; 22(4):160-7. [DOI:10.1080/08964289.1997.10543549] [PMID]
34. Levy F, Pipingas A, Harris EV, Farrow M, Silberstein RB. Continuous performance task in ADHD: Is reaction time variability a key measure? Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018; 14:781-86. [DOI:10.2147/NDT.S158308] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Ivarsson A, Johnson U, Andersen MB, Tranaeus U, Stenling A, Lindwall M. Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: Meta-analyses for prediction and prevention. Sports Medicine. 2017; 47(2):353-65. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-016-0578-x] [PMID]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.