Information Processing Speed and Accuracy in Basketball Players With and Without Functional Ankle Instability

  • Niloofar Mohammadi ORCID Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohammad Reza Hadian ORCID Mail Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Gholamreza Olyaei Department of Physiotherapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords:
Neurocognitive function, Reaction time task, Functional ankle instability

Abstract

Introduction: Ankle sprain is a common sports injury that can cause Functional Ankle Instability (FAI). Neurocognitive function impairment had been reported in subjects with musculoskeletal injuries. Consequently, information processing deficits might be associated with FAI. This study aimed to compare information processing speed and accuracy in athletes with and without FAI.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen control healthy male basketball players and 18 male basketball players with FAI voluntarily participated in the study. They were matched according to age, height, weight, duration of physical activity, and upper-limb dominance. The neurocognitive function of subjects was assessed with the computerized neurocognitive test. The computerized neurocognitive assessment is based on the presentation of ‘X’ on a computer monitor and includes detection (i.e. simple reaction time [SRT]) or identification (i.e. Choice Reaction Time [CRT]).
Results: Significant differences were observed between study groups in the SRT, CRT, and the number of errors (P<0.001). Subjects in the control group had a shorter reaction time and fewer errors.
Discussion: Athletes with FAI had significantly slower reaction times. FAI affects processing speed and accuracy, which may be modifiable through the performance of exercises designed to accelerate neurocognitive processing of visual input.

References

Lovell M. The management of sports-related concussion: current status and future trends. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 2009; 28(1):95-111. [DOI:10.1016/j.csm.2008.08.008] [PMID]
McCrory P, Makdissi M, Davis G, Collie A. Value of neuropsychological testing after head injuries in football. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39(Suppl. 1):i58-63. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2005.020776] [PMID] [PMCID]
Eckner JT, Kutcher JS, Richardson JK. Pilot evaluation of a novel clinical test of reaction time in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Journal of Athletic Training. 2010; 45(4):327-32. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-45.4.327] [PMID] [PMCID]
Collins MW, Grindel SH, Lovell MR, Dede DE, Moser DJ, Phalin BR, et al. Relationship between concussion and neuropsychological performance in college football players. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999; 282(10):964-70. [DOI:10.1001/jama.282.10.964] [PMID]
Covassin T, Elbin III RJ, Stiller-Ostrowski JL, Kontos AP. Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) practices of sports medicine professionals. Journal of Athletic Training. 2009; 44(6):639-44. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-44.6.639] [PMID] [PMCID]
Echemendia RJ, Herring S, Bailes J. Who should conduct and interpret the neuropsychological assessment in sports-related concussion? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009; 43(Suppl. 1):i32-5. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2009.058164] [PMID]
Echemendia RJ, Putukian M, Mackin RS, Julian L, Shoss N. Neuropsychological test performance before and following sports-related mild traumatic brain injury. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2001; 11(1):23-31. [DOI:10.1097/00042752-200101000-00005] [PMID]
Guskiewicz KM, Ross SE, Marshall SW. Postural stability and neuropsychological deficits after concussion in collegiate athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2001; 36(3):263-73. [PMID] [PMCID]
Hinton-Bayre AD, Geffen GM, Geffen LB, McFarland KA, Frijs P. Concussion in contact sports: Reliable change indices of impairment and recovery. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 1999; 21(1):70-86. [DOI:10.1076/jcen.21.1.70.945] [PMID]
Hutchison M, Comper P, Mainwaring L, Richards D. The influence of musculoskeletal injury on cognition: Implications for concussion research. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 39(11):2331-7. [DOI:10.1177/0363546511413375] [PMID]
Macciocchi SN, Barth JT, Alves W, Rimel RW, Jane JA. Neuropsychological functioning and recovery after mild head injury in collegiate athletes. Neurosurgery. 1996; 39(3):510-4. [DOI:10.1227/00006123-199609000-00014] [PMID]
McCrea M, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Barr W, Randolph C, Cantu RC, et al. Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: The NCAA Concussion Study. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003; 290(19):2556-63. [DOI:10.1001/jama.290.19.2556] [PMID]
Schatz P, Zillmer EA. Computer-based assessment of sports-related concussion. Applied Neuropsychology. 2003; 10(1):42-7. [DOI:10.1207/S15324826AN1001_6] [PMID]
Swanik CB, Covassin T, Stearne DJ, Schatz P. The relationship between neurocognitive function and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 35(6):943-8. [DOI:10.1177/0363546507299532] [PMID]
Wilkerson GB. Neurocognitive reaction time predicts lower extremity sprains and strains. International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training. 2012; 17(6):4-9. [DOI:10.1123/ijatt.17.6.4]
Dault MC, Frank JS, Allard F. Influence of a visuo-spatial, verbal and central executive working memory task on postural control. Gait Posture. 2001; 14(2):110-6. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00113-8]
Hamstra-Wright KL, Swanik CB, Sitler MR, Swanik KA, Ferber R, Ridenour M, et al. Gender comparisons of dynamic restraint and motor skill in children. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2006; 16(1):56-62. [DOI:10.1097/01.jsm.0000179232.10261.65] [PMID]
Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE. The anterior cruciate ligament enigma: Injury mechanisms and prevention. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®. 2000; (372):64-8. [DOI:10.1097/00003086-200003000-00008] [PMID]
Woo E, Burns Y, Johnston L. The effect of task uncertainty on muscle activation patterns in 8-10‐year‐old children. Physiotherapy Research International: The Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy. 2003; 8(3):143-54. [DOI:10.1002/pri.282] [PMID]
Buchanan AS, Docherty CL, Schrader J. Functional performance testing in participants with functional ankle instability and in a healthy control group. Journal of Athletic Training. 2008; 43(4):342-6. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-43.4.342] [PMID] [PMCID]
Akbari M, Karimi H, Farahini H, Faghihzadeh S. Balance problems after unilateral lateral ankle sprains. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2006; 43(7):819-24. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2006.01.0001] [PMID]
Caffrey E, Docherty CL, Schrader J, Klossner J. The ability of 4 single-limb hopping tests to detect functional performance deficits in individuals with functional ankle instability. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2009; 39(11):799-806. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2009.3042] [PMID]
Maroon JC, Lovell MR, Norwig J, Podell K, Powell JW, Hartl R. Cerebral concussion in athletes: Evaluation and neuropsychological testing. Neurosurgery. 2000; 47(3):659-72. [DOI:10.1097/00006123-200009000-00027] [PMID]
Rahnama L, Salavati M, Akhbari B, Mazaheri M. Attentional demands and postural control in athletes with and without functional ankle instability. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2010; 40(3):180-7. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2010.3188] [PMID]
Akhbari B, Takamjani IE, Salavati M, Sanjari MA. A 4-week biodex stability exercise program improved ankle musculature onset, peak latency and balance measures in functionally unstable ankles. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2007; 8(3):117-29. [DOI:10.1016/j.ptsp.2007.03.004]
Kim KJ, Heo M. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2015; 27(10):3097-101. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.27.3097] [PMID] [PMCID]
Nam SM, Kim WB, Yun CK. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2016; 28(5):1629-32. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.28.] [PMID] [PMCID]
Mainwaring LM, Bisschop SM, Green RE, Antoniazzi M, Comper P, Kristman V, et al. Emotional reaction of varsity athletes to sport-related concussion. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2004; 26(1):119-35. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.26.1.119]
Mainwaring LM, Hutchison M, Bisschop SM, Comper P, Richards DW. Emotional response to sport concussion compared to ACL injury. Brain Injury. 2010; 24(4):589-97. [DOI:10.3109/02699051003610508] [PMID]
Hutchison M, Mainwaring LM, Comper P, Richards DW, Bisschop SM. Differential emotional responses of varsity athletes to concussion and musculoskeletal injuries. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2009; 19(1):13-9. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e318190ba06] [PMID]
Andersen MB, Williams JM. Athletic injury, psychosocial factors and perceptual changes during stress. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1999; 17(9):735-41. [DOI:10.1080/026404199365597] [PMID]
Hasbroucq T, Rihet P, Blin O, Possamaı̈ CA. Serotonin and human information processing: Fluvoxamine can improve reaction time performance. Neuroscience Letters. 1997; 229(3):204-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0304-3940(97)00451-5]
Holmes AJ, Pizzagalli DA. Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: Relationship to subclinical measures of depression. Emotion. 2007; 7(1):68-76. [DOI:10.1037/1528-3542.7.1.68] [PMID] [PMCID]
Mathews A. Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1990; 28(6):455-68. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(90)90132-3]
Landers DM, Qi WM, Courtet P. Peripheral narrowing among experienced and inexperienced rifle shooters under low-and high-stress conditions. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1985; 56(2):122-30. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1985.10608446]
Nideffer RM. Comparison of self-report and performance measures of attention: A second look. Percept Mot Skills. 1977; 45(Suppl. 3):1291-4. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1977.45.3f.1291] [PMID]
Weinberg RS, Hunt VV. Effects of structural integration on state‐trait anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1979; 35(2):319-22. [DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(197904)35:23.0.CO;2-3]
Consiglio W, Driscoll P, Witte M, Berg WP. Effect of cellular telephone conversations and other potential interference on reaction time in a braking response. Accident: Analysis and Prevention. 2003; 35(4):495-500. [DOI:10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00027-1]
Ebersbach G, Dimitrijevic MR, Poewe W. Influence of concurrent tasks on gait: A dual-task approach. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1995; 81(1):107-13. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1995.81.1.107] [PMID]
Taimela S. Relation between speed of reaction and psychometric tests of mental ability in musculoskeletal injury-prone subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1990; 70(1):155-61. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1990.70.1.155] [PMID]
Taimela S, Kujala UM. Reaction times with reference to musculoskeletal complaints in adolescence. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1992; 75(Suppl. 3):1075-82. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1992.75.3f.1075] [PMID]
Published
2020-02-20
How to Cite
1.
Mohammadi N, Hadian MR, Olyaei G. Information Processing Speed and Accuracy in Basketball Players With and Without Functional Ankle Instability. jmr. 13(3):179-184.
Section
Case Report(s)