Comparative Assessment of Speech Perception, Phonological Information Processing, and Syntactic Skills in Normal and Dyslexic Children of Second and Third Grade
Introduction: Many studies have claimed that speech perception in dyslexic children is impaired in comparison to normal children in a way that dyslexic children are weaker in the discrimination and identification of phonemes. In this research, we study speech perception, syntactic skills, and phonological processing in the normal and dyslexic Farsi-speaking children.
Materials and Methods: We examined the speech perception in 30 normal and 18 dyslexic children, using speech identification task in 3 continua of voice onset time (VOT) in [ba-pa], [da-ta], and [ga-ka]. We also studied 2 other skills to examine the processing of phonological information and syntactic skills. We used the nonword repetition test and passive sentence comprehension, respectively. To compare the data, the Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, and logistic regression were used.
Results: Dyslexic children in speech identification task performed similarly to normal children in all 3 continua (P=0.81, 0.87, and 0.58); but, in the nonword repetition test, they were significantly lower than normal children (P=0.01), and in the passive sentence comprehension task, there was no significant difference between normal and dyslexic children (P=0.12).
Conclusion: The results of various studies for speech perception and linguistic abilities in dyslexic children are contradictory. They are mostly related to the tasks that have been used. Therefore, more studies in the future are suggested.
2. Ziegler JC, Pech-Georgel C, George F, Alario FX, Lorenzi C. Deficits in speech perception predict language learning impairment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005; 102(39):14110-5. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.0504446102] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Anastasi A, Urbina S. Psychological testing. 7th ed. N.J.: Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall/Pearson Education; 1997.
4. American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics, American Psychiatric Association. Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics, American Psychiatric Association. Work Group to Revise DSM-III. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Philadelphia: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.
5. Howes NL, Bigler ED, Burlingame GM, Lawson JS. Memory performance of children with dyslexia: A comparative analysis of theoretical perspectives. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2003; 36(3):230-46. [DOI:10.1177/002221940303600303] [PMID]
6. Berninger VW, Abbott RD, Lee Swanson H, Lovitt D, Trivedi P, Lin SJ, et al. Relationship of word-and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 2010; 41(2):179-93. [DOI:10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0002)]
7. Tønnessen, FE. How can we best define ‘dyslexia’? Dyslexia. 1997; 39(2):139-56.
8. Godfrey JJ, Syrdal-Lasky K, Millay KK, Knox CM. Performance of dyslexic children on speech perception tests. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1981; 32(3):401-24. [DOI:10.1016/0022-0965(81)90105-3]
9. Joanisse MF, Manis FR, Keating P, Seidenberg MS. Language deficits in dyslexic children: Speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2000; 77(1):30-60. [DOI:10.1006/jecp.1999.2553] [PMID]
10. Melby-Lervåg M, Lervåg A. Oral language skills moderate nonword repetition skills in children with dyslexia: A meta-analysis of the role of nonword repetition skills in dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading. 2012; 16(1):1-34. [DOI:10.1080/10888438.2010.537715]
11. Byrne B. Deficient syntactic control in poor readers: Is a weak phonetic memory code responsible? Applied Psycholinguistics. 1981; 2(3):201-12. [DOI:10.1017/S0142716400006512]
12. Leikin M, Bouskila OA. Expression of syntactic complexity in sentence comprehension: A comparison between dyslexic and regular readers. Reading and Writing. 2004; 17(7-8):801-22. [DOI:10.1007/s11145-004-2661-1]
13. Fletcher JM, Satz P, Scholes RJ. Developmental changes in the linguistic performance correlates of reading achievement. Brain and Language. 1981; 13(1):78-90. [DOI:10.1016/0093-934X(81)90130-9]
14. Bishop DV, Snowling MJ. Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: Same or different? Psychological Bulletin. 2004; 130(6):858-86. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.130.6.858] [PMID]
15. Robertson EK, Joanisse MF. Spoken sentence comprehension in children with dyslexia and language impairment: The roles of syntax and working memory. Applied Psycholinguistics. 2010; 31(1):141-65. [DOI:10.1017/S0142716409990208]
16. Bijankhan M, Nourbakhsh M. Voice onset time in Persian initial and intervocalic stop production. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 2009; 39(3):335-64. [DOI:10.1017/S0025100309990168]
17. Ziegler JC, Pech‐Georgel C, George F, Lorenzi C. Speech‐perception‐in‐noise deficits in dyslexia. Developmental Science. 2009; 12(5):732-45. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00817.x] [PMID]
18. Manis FR, McBride-Chang C, Seidenberg MS, Keating P, Doi LM, Munson B, et al. Are speech perception deficits associated with developmental dyslexia? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1997; 66(2):211-35. [DOI:10.1006/jecp.1997.2383] [PMID]
19. Cabbage KL, Hogan TP, Carrell TD. Speech perception differences in children with dyslexia and persistent speech delay. Speech Communication. 2016; 82:14-25. [DOI:10.1016/j.specom.2016.05.002]
20. Bogliotti C, Serniclaes W, Messaoud-Galusi S, Sprenger-Charolles L. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: Comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2008; 101(2):137-55. [DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2008.03.006] [PMID]
21. Gathercole SE. Nonword repetition and word learning: The nature of the relationship. Applied Psycholinguistics. 2006; 27(4):513-43. [DOI:10.1017/S0142716406060383]
22. Wagner RK, Torgesen JK. The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin. 1987; 101(2):192-212. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192]
23. Gathercole SE, Baddeley AD. Working memory and language. New York: Psychology Press; 2014.
24. Soleymani Z, Amidfar M, Dadgar H, Jalaie S. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2014; 78(4):674-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.01.035] [PMID]
25. Gerry Taylor H, Lean D, Schwartz S. Pseudoword repetition ability in learning-disabled children. Applied Psycholinguistics. 1989; 10(2):203-19. [DOI:10.1017/S0142716400008523]
26. Landerl K. Word recognition deficits in German: More evidence from a representative sample. Dyslexia. 2001; 7(4):183-96. [DOI:10.1002/dys.199] [PMID]
27. Marshall CM, Snowling MJ, Bailey PJ. Rapid auditory processing and phonological ability in normal readers and readers with dyslexia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2001; 44(4):925-40. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2001/073)]
28. Ferstl E., d’Arcais GF. The reading of words and sentences. In: Friederici AD. Language Comprehension: A Biological Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 1999. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-59967-5_6]
29. Deutsch A, Bentin S. Attention factors mediating syntactic deficiency in reading-disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1996; 63(2):386-415. [DOI:10.1006/jecp.1996.0055] [PMID]
30. Perfetti CA, Lesgold AM. Discourse comprehension and sources of individual differences. Washington, D.C.: ERIC Clearinghouse; 1977.
|Issue||Vol 13 No 2 (2019)|
|Speech perception Dyslexia Nonword repetition Sentence comprehension|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|