Developing a Parent’s Early Telehealth Program for Stuttering Children Younger Than 4 Years and Assessing Its Validity
Introduction: Recent studies suggest that treatment should be begun immediately in children who have recently started to stutter. The purpose of this study was to design a telehealth application for parents of young children who stutter. It is an evidence-based treatment that can be administered from an early age compared to the current “wait and see” approaches.
Materials and Methods: This research involved a qualitative content analysis. At first, a comprehensive review was performed on different well-established therapeutic programs, and their main therapeutic components were extracted via several sessions held by our focused group. Subsequently, six independent stuttering experts and five parents of stutter children were asked to rate the program’s items regarding its content and face validities by a 5-point Likert questionnaire. Finally, the entire program was used to form an easy to use, family-friendly software.
Results: Seven therapeutic principles and five common factors were extracted from all available well-established stuttering treatment programs. They were designed in an easy to use software program. The final telehealth program was found to have a high face and content validities.
Conclusion: This program might be used in future clinical practice for stuttering children under the age Four. However, its efficacy has yet to be examined.
1. Conture EG. Stuttering: Its nature, diagnosis, and treatment. London: Pearson; 2001.
2. Yairi E, Ambrose N. Epidemiology of stuttering: 21st century advances. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2013; 38(2):66-87. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2012.11.002] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Yairi E, Ambrose NG. Early childhood stuttering iPersistency and recovery rates. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 1999; 42(5):1097-112. [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4205.1097] [PMID]
4. Conture EG. Treatment efficacy stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 1996; 39(5):S18-S26. [DOI:10.1044/jshr.3905.s18] [PMID]
5. Kingston M, Huber A, Onslow M, Jones M, Packman A. Predicting treatment time with the Lidcombe Program: Replication and meta‐analysis. International Journal of Speech-language Pathology. 2003; 38(2):165-77. [DOI:10.1080/1368282031000062882] [PMID]
6. Prasse JE, Kikano GE. Stuttering: An overview. American Family Physician. 2008; 77(9):1271-6.
7. Onslow M, Packman A, Harrison RE. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention: A clinician’s guide. Sydney: Austin; 2003.
8. Packman A, Onslow M, Attanasio J, Onslow M, Packman A, Harrison E. The timing of early intervention with the Lidcombe Program. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention: A clinical guide. 2003; 2003:41-55.
9. Jones M, Onslow M, Harrison E, Packman A. Treating stuttering in young children: Predicting treatment time in the Lidcombe Program. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 2000; 43(6):1440-50. [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4306.1440] [PMID]
10. Onslow M. Stuttering and its treatment: Eleven lectures. [Internet]. 2015 [Updated 2019 Nov 14]. Availble from: https://sydney.edu.au/content/dam/corporate/documents/faculty-of-medicine-and-health/health-sciences/health-sciences-research-brochure.pdf
11. Saltuklaroglu T, Kalinowski J. How effective is therapy for childhood stuttering? Dissecting and reinterpreting the evidence in light of spontaneous recovery rates. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2005; 40(3):359-74. [DOI:10.1080/13682820400027735] [PMID]
12. Beitchman J, Brownlie E, Inglis A, Wild J, Ferguson B, Schachter D, et al. Seven‐year follow‐up of speech/language impaired and control children: Psychiatric outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1996; 37(8):961-70. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01493.x] [PMID]
13. Beitchman JH, Nair R, Clegg M, Ferguson B, Patel P. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with speech and language disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. 1986; 25(4):528-35. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-7138(10)60013-1]
14. Beitchman JH, Wilson B, Johnson CJ, Atkinson L, Young A, Adlaf E, et al. Fourteen-year follow-up of speech/language-impaired and control children: Psychiatric outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2001; 40(1):75-82. [DOI:10.1097/00004583-200101000-00019] [PMID]
15. Millard SK, Edwards S, Cook FM. Parent-child interaction therapy: Adding to the evidence. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2009; 11(1):61-76. [DOI:10.1080/17549500802603895]
16. Packman A. Theory and therapy in stuttering: A complex relationship. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2012; 37(4):225-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2012.05.004] [PMID]
17. Yaruss JS, Coleman C, Hammer D. Treating preschool children who stutter: Description and preliminary evaluation of a family-focused treatment approach. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 2006; 37(2):118-36. [DOI:10.1044/0161-1461(2006/014)]
18. de Sonneville-Koedoot C, Stolk E, Rietveld T, Franken MC. Direct versus indirect treatment for preschool children who stutter: The RESTART randomized trial. PlOS One. 2015;10(7):e0133758.
19. Guitar B. Stuttering: An integrated approach to its nature and treatment. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.
20. Behpajooh A, Kamali Sh. [Comparison of the effectiveness of clinical methods and self improvement in the treatment of stuttering in children with speech disorder (Persian)]. Journal of Educational Sciences and Psychology. 2005; 3(2):65-90.
21. Shafii B, Faramarzi S, Abedi A, Dehqan A, C sherer N. [Determining the effectiveness of direct, indirect and combined therapeutic therapy methods on pregnant children’s stuttering stress (Persian)]. Jundishapur Scientific Medical Journal. 2018; 17(2):203-24.
22. Franken M-C, de Sonneville-Koedoot C, Stolk E, Rietveld A, Bouwmans-Frijters C. Comparing a demands and capacities model approach and the lidcombe program for pre-school stuttering children: The restart randomised trail. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 193:287-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.276]
23. Boucand VA, Millard S, Packman A. Early intervention for stuttering: Similarities and differences between two programs. SIG 4 Perspectives on Fluency and Fluency Disorders. 2014; 24(1):8-19. [DOI:10.1044/ffd24.1.8]
24. Lambert MJ, Bergin AE. The effectiveness of psychotherapy. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons. 1994; 4:143-89.
25. Asay TP, Lambert MJ. The empirical case for the common factors in therapy: Quantitative findings. Washington DC: American Psychological Association; 1999.
26. Franken M-CJ, Kielstra-Van der Schalk CJ, Boelens H. Experimental treatment of early stuttering: A preliminary study. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2005; 30(3):189-99. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2005.05.002] [PMID]
27. Mollon B, Chong JJ, Holbrook AM, Sung M, Thabane L, Foster G. Features predicting the success of computerized decision support for prescribing: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2009; 9(1):11. [DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-9-11] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Lewis C, Packman A, Onslow M, Simpson JM, Jones M. A Phase II trial of tele-health delivery of the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2008; 17(2):139-49. [DOI:10.1044/1058-0360(2008/014)]
29. O’Brian S, Smith K, Onslow M. Webcam delivery of the Lidcombe Program for early stuttering: A phase I clinical trial. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2014; 57(3):825-30. [DOI:10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-13-0094] [PMID]
30. Wilson L, Onslow M, Lincoln M. Tele-health adaptation of the lidcombe program of early stuttering intervention five case studies. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2004; 13(1):81-92. [DOI:10.1044/1058-0360(2004/009)]
31. Carey B, O’Brian S, Onslow M, Packman A, Menzies R. Webcam delivery of the Camperdown Program for adolescents who stutter: A Phase I trial. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 2012; 43(3):370-80. [DOI:10.1044/0161-1461(2011/11-0010)]
32. O’Brian S, Packman A, Onslow M. Tele-health delivery of the Camperdown Program for adults who stutter: A phase I trial. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2008; 51(1):184-95. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/014)]
33. Lei H, Nahum-Shani I, Lynch K, Oslin D, Murphy S. A” SMART” design for building individualized treatment sequences. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2012; 8:21-48. [DOI:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143152] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Hembree-Kigin TL, McNeil CB. Parent-child interaction therapy. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.
35. Pappas NW, McLeod S. Working with families in speech-language pathology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2008.
36. Riley GD, Bakker K. Stuttering severity instrument: SSI-4. Austin: Pro Ed; 2009.
37. O’Brian S, Packman A, Onslow M, O’Brian N. Measurement of stuttering in adults: Comparison of stuttering-rate and severity-scaling methods. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2004; 47(5):1081-7. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/080)]
38. O’Brian S, Jones M, Packman A, Menzies R, Onslow M. Stuttering severity and educational attainment. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2011; 36(2):86-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2011.02.006] [PMID]
39. Eve CL, Onslow M, Andrews C, Adams R. Clinical measurement of early stuttering severity: The reliability of a 10-point scale. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders. 1995; 23(2):26-39. [DOI:10.3109/asl2.1995.23.issue-2.03]
40. Onslow M, Harrison E, Jones M, Packman A. Beyond-clinic speech measures during the Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention. Acquiring Knowledge in Speech, Language and Hearing. 2002; 4(2):82-5.
41. Onslow M, Andrews C, Costa L. Parental severity scaling of early stuttered speech: Four case studies. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders. 1990; 18(1):47-61. [DOI:10.3109/asl2.1990.18.issue-1.04]
42. Shayan Sh, [Evaluation of clinical competencies of medical students using Electronic Patient Management Problem (EPMP) (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Medical Education. 2006; 10(5):65-90.
|Issue||Vol 13 No 1 (2019)|
|Stuttering Children Telehealth Early intervention Preschool children Software|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|