Neuro-Optometry, Neuro-Optometrist, and Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitative Implications
The area of neuro-optometry, a subspecialty of optometry, has started a long time ago and continued to serve patients with neurological dysfunctions of the visual system through various methods and applications. The efficiency of neuro-optometric rehabilitation has been proved by a wealth of scientific presentations and publications in the area of neuroscience. However, this subspecialty of optometry has not yet been appreciated and recognized in many regions of the world. This scientific article outlines neuro-optometry, neuro-optometrist’s duties, and neuro-optometric rehabilitative implications in order to highlight the importance of neuro-optometric rehabilitation, to shed a light on one of the missing responsibilities of optometrists in the area of neuroscience, to present the significance of references and sources worked in this area of science, and to define relevant duties for optometrists who wish to work in this sector.
Wenberg S, Thomas JA. The role of vision in the rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system: Part 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2000; 4(4):242-5. [DOI:10.1054/jbmt.2000.0189]
Wenberg S, Thomas JA. Post traumatic vision syndrome and the locomotor system: Part 2. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2001; 5(1):2-10. [DOI:10.1054/jbmt.2000.0190]
Kelts E. The basic anatomy of the optic nerve and visual system (or, why Thoreau was wrong). Neurorehabilitation. 2010; 27:217-22. [PMID]
Pinto PS, Meoded A, Poretti A, Tekes A, Huisman TA. The unique features of traumatic brain injury in children. Review of the characteristics of the pediatric skull and brain, mechanisms of trauma, patterns of injury, complications and their imaging findings–part. Journal of Neuroimaging. 2012; 22(2):e1-e17. [DOI:10.1111/j.1552-6569.2011.00688.x]
Barnett BP, Singman EL. Vision concerns after mild traumatic brain injury. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2015; 17(5):1-14. [DOI:10.1007/s11940-014-0329-y]
Pula JH, Yuen CA. Eyes and stroke: The visual aspects of cerebrovascular disease. Stroke and Vascular Neurology. 2017; 2:e000079. [DOI:10.1136/svn-2017-000079] [PMID] [PMCID]
Berthold-Lindstedt M, Ygge J, Borg K. Visual dysfunction is underestimated in patients with acquired brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2017; 49(4):327-32. [DOI:10.2340/16501977-2218] [PMID]
Cohen AH, Soden R. An optometric approach to the rehabilitation of the stroke patient. Journal of the American Optometric Association. 1984; 52(10):795-800. [PMID]
Taub M. TBI a major cause of disability. Optometry & Vision Development. 2009; 40(1):12-3.
Cohen AH. Vision rehabilitation for visual-vestibular dysfunction: The role of neuro-optometrist. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013; 32(3):483-92. [doi:10.3233/NRE-130871] [PMID]
Phan T, Cohen A. Neuro-optometric rehabilitation of visual and visual-vestibular symptoms following acquired brain injury. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2017; 3(2):110-20.
Candler R. Some observations on orthoptic treatment following head injury. British Orthoptic Journal. 1944; 2:56-62.
Noton D, Stark L. Scanpaths in eye movements during visual perception. Science. 1971; 171(3968):308-11. [DOI:10.1126/science.171.3968.308] [PMID]
Stark L, Bahill AT, Ciuffreda KJ, Kenyon RV, Phillips S. Neurooptometry: An evolving specialty clinic. Optometry and Vision Science. 1977; 54(2):85–96. [DOI:10.1097/00006324-197702000-00004] [PMID]
Krohel GB, Kristan RW, Simon JW, Barrows NA. Posttraumatic convergence insufficiency. Annals of Ophthalmology. 1986; 18(3):101-4. [PMID]
Cohen M, Groswasser Z, Barchadski R, Appel A. Convergence insufficiency in brain-injured patients. Brain Injury. 1989; 3(2):187-91. [DOI:10.3109/02699058909004551] [PMID]
Ashley MJ. Traumatic brain injury:rehabilitative treatment and case management. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004.
Mandese M. Oculo-visual evaluation of the patient with traumatic brain injury. Optometry and Vision Development. 2009; 40(1):37-44.
Tong D, Zink C. Vision dysfunctions secondary to motor vehicle accident: A case report. Optometry and Vision Development. 2010; 41(3):158-68.
Thiagarajan P, Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam DP. Vergence dysfunction in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI): A review. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 2011; 31:456-468. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00831.x] [PMID]
Tannen NM, Tannen B, Ciuffreda KJ. Optometric management of a post-concussion patient: A case report. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2016; 2(4):237-42.
Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam D, Tannen B. Neuro-Optometry: An evolving specialty clinic; 40 years later: A perspective. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2017; 3(2):72-4.
Rizzo JR, Waskiewicz M, Kapoor N. OT-OD synergy during management of the concussed: A case report illustrating seamless care ‘handoffs’. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2017; 3(3):131-46.
Hebb DO. The organization of behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 1949. [PMCID]
Schwartz J, Begley S. The mind and the brain: Neuroplasticity and the power of mental force. New York: Harper Collins; 2003.
Kandel ER. In search of memory: The emergence of a new science of mind. New York: W.W. Norton & Company; 2006.
Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: Implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2008; 51(1):S225-39. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2008/018)]
Johnston MV. Plasticity in the developing brain:implications for rehabilitation. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 2009; 15(2):94-101. [DOI:10.1002/ddrr.64] [PMID]
Huang JC. Neuroplasticity as a proposed mechanism for the efficacy of optometric vision therapy and rehabilitation. Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 2009; 20(4):95-100.
Maino D. Neuroplasticity: Teaching an old brain new tricks. Review of Optometry. 2009; 46(1):62-64.
Scharnweber AR, Palmer GA, Ampe HJ, Lenzen-Hammerel AM. Vision rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2016; 2(2):132-9.
Clopton J. Changing paradigms – optometric vision therapy is neuroscience. Optometry and Vision Development. 2009; 40(2):112-5.
Press LJ. Applied concepts in vision therapy. Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby; 1997.
Leigh RJ, Zee DS. The neurology of eye movements. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.
Griffin JR, Grisham JD. Binocular anomalies: Diagnosis and vision therapy. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program Foundation; 2007.
Press LJ. Accommodative and vergence disorders:Restoring balance to a distressed system. In: Press LJ, editor. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program Foundation; 2008.
Birnbaum MH. Optometric management of nearpoint vision disorders. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program Foundation; 2008.
Scherle R, Goss DA. Index of vision therapy procedures. Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 2008; 19:15-19.
Sapossnek R. Providingcare of mild traumatic brain injury by the family practice/ primary care optometrist. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2018; 4(3):110-2.
Nouraeinejad A. [Handbook of use of ophthalmic drugs and systemic drugs (Persian)]. Tehran: Tabib Publication; 2000.
Baxstrom C. Optometric intervention in ocular, vestibular and cervical subtypes of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2017; 3(3):159-66.
Garzia RP, Richman JE, Nicholson SB, Gaines CS. A new visual-verbal saccade test: The Development Eye Movement test (DEM). Journal of the American Optometric Association. 1990; 61(2):124-35. [PMID]
Cate Y, Richards L. Relationship between performance on tests of basic visual functions and visual–perceptual processing in persons after brain injury. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2000; 54:326–34. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.54.3.326] [PMID]
Craig SB, Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, Han ME, Rutner D. Profile of selected aspects of visually-symptomatic individuals with acquired brain injury: A retrospective study. Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 2008; 19(1):7-10.
Radomski MV, Davidson L, Voydetich D, Erickson MW. Occupational therapy for service members with mild traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2009; 63:646-55. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.63.5.646] [PMID]
Ripley DL, Politzer T, Berryman A, Rasavage K, Weintraub A. The vision clinic: An interdisciplinary method for assessment and treatment of visual problems after traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2010; 27(3):231-5. [PMID]
Berger S. Effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for older adults living with low vision. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2013; 67:263-5. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2013.007203]
Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: A systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013; 47(5):304-7. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092190] [PMID]
Reynolds E, Collins MW, Mucha A, Troutman-Ensecki C. Establishing a clinical service for the management of sports-related concussions. Neurosurgery. 2014; 75(Suppl 4):S71-81. [DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000471] [PMID]
Weisser-Pike O. Assessing abilities and capacities:Vision and visual processing. In: Radomski MV, Trombly Latham CA, editors. Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.
Radomski MV, Finkelstein M, Llanos I, Scheiman M, Wagener SG. Composition of a vision screen for servicemembers with traumatic brain injury: Consensus using a modified nominal group technique. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2014; 68(4):422–9. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2014.011445] [PMID] [PMCID]
Finn C, Waskiewicz M. The role of occupational therapy in managing post-concussion syndrome. Physical Disabilities. 2015; 38(1):1-4.
Hugentobler JA, Vegh M, Janiszewski B, Quatman-Yates C. Physicaltherapy intervention strategies for patients with prolonged mild traumatic brain injury symptoms: A case series. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2015; 10(5):676-89. [PMID] [PMCID]
Roberts PS, Rizzo JR, Hreha K, Wertheimer J, Kaldenberg J, Hironaka D, et al. A conceptual model for vision rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2016; 53(6):693-704. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2015.06.0113] [PMID] [PMCID]
Vargo MM, Vargo KG, Gunzler D, Fox KW. Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Referrals in a Concussion Clinic Cohort: An Exploratory Analysis. PM&R Journal. 2016; 8(3):241-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.07.006] [PMID]
Smith-Forbes EV, Quick CD, Brown KM. Roles of occupational therapists in theater, past and present. US Army Medical Department Journal. 2016; (2-16):66-70. [PMID]
Biel L. The essential collaboration between ODs and OTs. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2016; 2(4):205-7.
Grabowski P, Wilson J, Walker A, Enz D, Wang S. Multimodal impairment-based physical therapy for the treatment of patients with post-concussion syndrome: A retrospective analysis on safety and feasibility. Physical Therapy in Sport: Official Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine. 2017; 23:22-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.ptsp.2016.06.001] [PMID]
Murray DA, Meldrum D, Lennon O. Can vestibular rehabilitation exercises help patients with concussion? A systematic review of efficacy, prescription and progression patterns. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017; 51(5):442-51. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096081] [PMID]
Kapoor N. Inter-professional Management of Concussion and Vision: Guest editorial comment. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2017; 3(3):129-30.
Amorapanth PX, Kapoor N. Seeing the forest for the trees: The diagnosis and rehabilitation of functional visual impairment in a severely symptomatic patient with concussion. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2017; 3(3):147-58.
McInnes K, Friesen CL, MacKenzie DE, Westwood DA, Boe SG. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) and chronic cognitive impairment: A scoping review. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(4):e0174847. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174847] [PMID] [PMCID]
Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N. Visual and vestibular consequences of acquired brain injury. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press; 2001.
Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam DP, Thiagarajan P, Yadav NK. Capo-Aponte J. Proposed objective visual system biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury. Military Medicine. 2014; 179(11):1212-7. [DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00059] [PMID]
Kalberer D. Clinical Implications of the center of balance for a veteran with traumatic brain injury. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2015; 1(4):280-9.
Groce A, Bansal S. Optometric management of sports-related post-concussion visual symptoms in teenagers with vision therapy: A case series. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2016; 2(1):35-54.
Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ. Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury. Journal of Optometry. 2018; 11(2):103-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.optom.2017.01.001] [PMID] [PMCID]
Hoffer ME, Gottshall KR, Moore R, Balough BJ, Wester D. Characterizing and treating dizziness after mild head trauma. Otology & Neurotology. 2004; 25(2):135–8. [DOI:10.1097/00129492-200403000-00009] [PMID]
Lau BC, Kontos AP, Collins MW, Mucha A, Lovell MR. Which on-field signs/symptoms predict protracted recovery from sport-related concussion among high school football players? American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 39(11):2311–8. [DOI:10.1177/0363546511410655] [PMID]
Kontos AP, Elbin RJ, Schatz P, Covassin T, Henry L, Pardini J, et al. A revised factor structure for the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale:baseline and postconcussion factors. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2012; 40(10):2375–84. [DOI:10.1177/0363546512455400] [PMID]
Naguib MB, Madian Y, Refaat M, Mohsen O, El Tabakh M, Abo-Setta A. Characterisation and objective monitoring of balance disorders following head trauma, using videonystagmography. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2012; 126(1):26-33. [DOI:10.1017/S002221511100291X] [PMID]
Giza CC, Kutcher JS, Ashwal S, Barth J, Getchius TS, Gioia GA, et al. Summary of evidence-based guideline update:evaluation and management of concussion in sports. Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2013; 80(24):2250–7. [DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828d57dd] [PMID] [PMCID]
McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Aubry M, Cantu B, Dvorák J, Echemendia RJ, et al. Concussion statement on concussion in sport: The 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013; 47(5):250-8. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092313] [PMID]
Mucha A, Collins MW, Elbin RJ, Furman JM, Troutman-Enseki C, DeWolf RM, Marchetti G, Kontos AP. A brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014; 42(10):2479–86. [DOI:10.1177/0363546514543775] [PMID] [PMCID]
Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, Rutner D, Suchoff IB, Han ME, Craig SH. Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: A retrospective analysis. Optometry. 2007; 78(4):155-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.optm.2006.11.011] [PMID]
Brahm KD, Wilgenburg HM, Kirby J, Ingalla S, Chang CY, Goodrich GL. Visual impairment and dysfunction in combat-injured service members with traumatic brain injury. Optometry and Vision Science. 2009; 86(7):817–25. [DOI:10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181adff2d] [PMID]
Heitger MH, Jones RD, Macleod AD, Snell DL, Frampton CH, Anderson TJ. Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability. Brain. 2009; 132(10):2850-70. [DOI:10.1093/brain/awp181] [PMID]
Cockerham GC, Goodrich GL, Weichel ED, Orcutt JC, Rizzo JF, Bower KS, Schuchard RA. Eye and visual function in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2009; 46(6):811–8. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2008.08.0109] [PMID]
Green W, Ciuffreda KJ, Thiagarajan P, Szymanowicz D, Ludlam DP, Kapoor N. Accommodation in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2010; 47(3):183–99. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2009.04.0041] [PMID]
Blennow K, Hardy J, Zetterberg H. The neuropathology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron. 2012; 76(5):886-99. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.11.021] [PMID]
McCrea M, Guskiewicz K, Randolph C, Barr WB, Hammeke TA, Marshall SW, et al. Incidence, clinical course, and predictors of prolonged recovery time following sport-related concussion in high school and college athletes. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2013; 19(1):22–33. [DOI:10.1017/S1355617712000872] [PMID]
Goodrich GL, Flyg HM, Kirby JE, Chang CY, Martinsen GL. Mechanisms of TBI and visual consequences in military and veteran populations. Optometry and Vision Science. 2013; 90:105-12. [DOI:10.1097/OPX.0b013e31827f15a1] [PMID]
Ventura RE, Balcer LJ, Galetta SL. The neuro-ophthalmology of head trauma. The Lancet Neurology. 2014; 13(10):1006–16. [DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70111-5] [PMID]
Tannen B, Darner R, Ciuffreda KJ, Shelley-Tremblay J, Rogers J. Vision and reading deficits in post-concussion patients: A retrospective analysis. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2015; 3:206-213.
Master CL, Scheiman M, Gallaway M, Goodman A, Robinson RL, Master SR, et al. Vision diagnoses are common after concussion in adolescents. Clinical Pediatrics. 2016; 55(3):260-7. [DOI:10.1177/0009922815594367] [PMID]
Matuseviciene G, Johansson J, Möller M, Godbolt AK, Pansell T, Deboussard CN. Longitudinal changes in oculomotor function in young adults with mild traumatic brain injury in Sweden: An exploratory prospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2018; 8:e018734. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018734] [PMID] [PMCID]
Lew HL, Pogoda TK, Baker E, Stolzmann, KL, Meterko M, Cifu DX, et al. Prevalence of dual sensory impairment and its association with traumatic brain injury and blast exposure in OEF/OIF veterans. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 2011; 26(6):489–96. [DOI:10.1097/HTR.0b013e318204e54b] [PMID]
Capo´-Aponte JE, Tarbett A, Urosevich TG, Temme LA, Sanghera NK, Kalich ME. Effectiveness of computerized oculomotor vision screening in a military population: Pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2012; 49(9):1377–98. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2011.07.0128]
Bulson R, Jun W, Hayes J. Visual symptomatology and referral patterns for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2012; 49(7):1075–82. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2011.02.0017] [PMID]
Greenwald BD, Kapoor N, Singh AD. Visual impairments in the first year after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury. 2012; 26(11):1338–59. [DOI:10.3109/02699052.2012.706356] [PMID]
Magone MT, Kwon E, Shin SY. Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2014; 51(1):71-80. [DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2013.01.0008] [PMID]
Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam D, Yadav N. Does vision therapy work? The wrong question: A perspective. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2016; 2(2):101-4.
McCrea M, Guskiewicz K, Randolph C, Barr WB, Hammeke TA, et al. Effects of a symptom-free waiting period on clinical outcome and risk of reinjury after sport-related concussion. Neurosurgery. 2009; 65(5):876-882. [DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000350155.89800.00] [PMID]
Padula WV, Munitz R, Magrun WM. Neuro-visual processing rehabilitation: An interdisciplinary OEP. Guilford: Padula Institute Of Vision. 2012; 66.
Ciuffreda KJ, Rutner D, Kapoor N, Suchoff IB, Craig S, Han ME. Vision therapy for oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: A retrospective analysis. Optometry. 2008; 79(1):18-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.optm.2007.10.004] [PMID]
Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision deficits following acquired brain injury. In: Cristian A, editor. Medical Management of the Adult with a Neurological Disability. New York: Demos Medical Publishing; 2009.
Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam DP, Yadav NK. Conceptual model pyramid of optometric care in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI): A perspective. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2015; 1(2):105-8.
Novak Z, Aglipay M, Barrowman N, Yeates KO, Beauchamp MH, Gravel J, et al. Association of persistent postconcussion symptoms with pediatric quality of life. JAMA Pediatrics. 2016; 170(12):e162900. [DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2900] [PMID]
Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam DP. Conceptual model of optometric vision care in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 2011; 22:10-12.
|Issue||Vol 12 No 2 (2018)|
|Neuro-optometry Neuro-optometrist Neuro-optometric rehabilitation Vision therapy Neurological disorders Interdisciplinary approaches|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|