Investigating the Relationship Between Morphological Awareness and Reading Skills in the Third and Fourth Grade Dyslexia and Normal Developing Readers
AbstractIntroduction: Reading is defined as the ability to understand and use written language which is done via conversion of grapheme to phoneme. Morphological Awareness (MA) is the ability of conscious manipulation of morpheme which is the smallest meaningful language unit. The relationship between reading ability and MA is bidirectional. Many aspects of reading are predicted by MA. In Iran, one study has been conducted on this relationship. Regarding this issue, the main aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between reading and MA. Because, the explicit MA (conscious use of morphemes) appears in the third and fourth graders, we studied the relationship between dyslexia and normal readers in these two graders. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 34 normally developed readers (22 boys and 12 girls) and 20 dyslexic students participated. Teacher questionnaire and NAMA test were used for dyslexia diagnosis. In addition, NAMA test for reading evaluation and MA test for assessment of morphological knowledge were used. Normal distribution of the data was examined by 1-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov test, while the data were analyzed by Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Results: In normal students, there is a relationship between word comprehension task and total score of morphological awareness test (Correlation Coefficient=0.70), between word reading and construct formation task (CC=0.46), between text comprehension and dynamic morpheme production task (CC=0.57), and between phoneme deletion and total score of morphological awareness test (CC=0.63). In dyslexic children, the relationships exist between word comprehension and construct formation (CC=0.60), between dynamic morpheme production (CC=0.78), and total score of morphological awareness test (CC=0.67), between text comprehension and morphological awareness task (CC=0.64), and between word chain and morpheme identification task (CC=0.78).Conclusion: According to statistical analyses, some tasks of MA were correlated with some reading tasks; we believe the tasks used for reading skills could have influenced these results. The tasks of the present study for reading skills assessment were different from the tasks of other studies.
Rogers H. Writing systems: A linguistics approach. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.
Mullis IV, Martin MO, Sainsbury M. PIRLS 2016 reading framework. Paris: PIRLS; 2016.
Goswami U. Phonology, reading development, and dyslexia: A cross-linguistic perspective. Annals of Dyslexia. 2002; 52(1):139-63. doi: 10.1007/s11881-002-0010-0
Mimran RC. Reading disabilities among Hebrew-speaking children in upper elementary grades: The role of phonological and nonphonological language skills. Reading and Writing. 2006; 19(3):291-311. doi: 10.1007/s11145-005-5461-3
Ho CSH, Chan DWO, Lee SH, Tsang SM, Luan VH. Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Cognition. 2004; 91(1):43-75. doi: 10.1016/s0010-0277(03)00163-x
Nagy W, Berninger VW, Abbott RD. Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2006; 98(1):134-47. doi: 10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
Lyster SAH, Lervåg AO, Hulme C. Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension. Reading and Writing. 2016; 29(6):1269-88. doi: 10.1007/s11145-016-9636-x
Clin E, Wade-Woolley L, Heggie L. Prosodic sensitivity and morphological awareness in children’s reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2009; 104(2):197-213. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.05.005
Bauer L, Renouf A. A corpus-based study of compounding in English. Journal of English Linguistics. 2001; 29(2):101-23. doi: 10.1177/00754240122005251
Carlisle JF, Nomanbhoy DM. Phonological and morphological awareness in first graders. Applied Psycholinguistics. 1993; 14(02):177-95. doi: 10.1017/s0142716400009541
Kirby JR, Deacon SH, Bowers PN, Izenberg L, Wade-Woolley L, Parrila R. Children’s morphological awareness and reading ability. Reading and Writing. 2012; 25(2):389-410. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9276-5
Carlisle J, Goodwin A, Stone C, Silliman E, Ehren B, Wallach G. Morphemes matter: How morphological knowledge contributes to reading and writing. In: Stone CA, Silliman ER, Ehren BJ, Wallach GP, editors. Handbook of language and literacy: Devel-opment and disorders. New York: Guilford; 2013.
Berninger VW, Raskind W, Richards T, Abbott R, Stock P. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding developmental dyslexia within working-memory architecture: Genotypes, phenotypes, brain, and instruction. Developmental Neuropsychology. 2008; 33(6):707-44. doi: 10.1080/87565640802418662
Carlisle JF. Awareness of the structure and meaning of morphologically complex words: Impact on reading. Reading and writing. 2000; 12(3-4):169-90. doi: 10.1023/a:1008131926604
Wolter JA, Wood A, D’zatko KW. The influence of morphological awareness on the literacy development of first-grade children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 2009; 40(3):286-98. doi" 10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0001)
Deacon SH, Kirby JR. Morphological awareness: Just “more phonological”? The roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading development. Applied Psycholinguistics. 2004; 25(2):223-38.doi: 10.1017/s0142716404001110
Kieffer MJ, Lesaux NK. Direct and indirect roles of morphological awareness in the English reading comprehension of native English, Spanish, Filipino, and Vietnamese speakers. Language Learning. 2012; 62(4):1170-204. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00722.x
Nagy WE, Anderson RC. How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly. 1984; 19(3):304-30. doi: 10.2307/747823
Levesque KC, Kieffer MJ, Deacon SH. Morphological awareness and reading comprehension: Examining mediating factors. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2017; 160:1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2017.02.015
Ku YM, Anderson RC. Development of morphological awareness in Chinese and English. Reading and Writing. 2003; 16(5):399-422. doi: 10.1023/a:1024227231216
Guimarães SRK, da Cunha JM, Medina GBK, Campos AMG. Morphological awareness in Brazilian learners with developmental dyslexia. Creative Education. 2015; 6(11):1145-57. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.611113
Ramirez G, Chen X, Geva E, Kiefer H. Morphological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: Within and cross-language effects on word reading. Reading and Writing. 2010; 23(3-4):337-58. doi: 10.1007/s11145-009-9203-9
Mahfoudhi A, Elbeheri G, Al-Rashidi M, Everatt J. The role of morphological awareness in reading comprehension among typical and learning disabled native Arabic speakers. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2010; 43(6):500-14. doi: 10.1177/0022219409355478
Vaknin-Nusbaum V, Sarid M, Shimron J. Morphological awareness and reading in second and fifth grade: evidence from Hebrew. Reading and Writing. 2016; 29(2):229-44. doi: 10.1007/s11145-015-9587-7
Leong CK. Productive knowledge of derivational rules in poor readers. Annals of Dyslexia. 1989; 39(1):94-115. doi: 0.1007/bf02656903
Shaywitz B, Shaywitz S, Liberman I, Fletcher J, Shankweiler D, Duncan J, et al. Neurolinguistic and biological mechanisms in dyslexia. In: Duane DD, Gray DB, editor. The reading brain: The biological basis of dyslexia. York: York Press; 1991.
Elbro C, Arnbak E. The role of morpheme recognition and morphological awareness in dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia. 1996; 46(1):209-40. doi: 10.1007/bf02648177
Shu H, McBride-Chang C, Wu S, Liu H. Understanding Chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2006; 98(1):122-33. doi: 10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52
Ghaemi H, Soleymani Z, Dadgar H. Comparitive study of the role of morphological awareness in accuracy, speed and comprehension of reading in dyslexic and normal children in second grade of primary school. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation. 2010; 4(3):23-8.
Paul R. Language disorders from infancy through adolescence: Assessment & intervention. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2007.
Karami Nouri R, Moradi AR, Akbari Zardkhane S, Zahedian H. [Reading & dyslexia test (Persian)]. Tehran: Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research; 2008.
Singson M, Mahony D, Mann V. The relation between reading ability and morphological skills: Evidence from derivational suffixes. Reading and Writing. 2000; 12(3-4):219-52. doi: 10.1023/a:1008196330239
Berko J. The child’s learning of English morphology. Word. 1958; 14(2-3):150-77. doi: 10.1080/00437956.1958.11659661
Derwing BL. Morpheme recognition and the learning of rules for derivational morphology. Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 1976; 21(1):38-66. doi: 10.1017/S0008413100008045
Mahony DL. Using sensitivity to word structure to explain variance in high school and college level reading ability. Reading and Writing. 1994; 6(1):19-44. doi: 10.1007/bf01027276
Mahony D, Singson M, Mann V. Reading ability and sensitivity to morphological relations. Reading and writing. 2000; 12(3-4):191-218. doi: 10.1023/a:1008136012492
Nunes T, Bryant P, Bindman M. Learning to spell regular and irregular verbs. Reading and Writing. 1977; 9(5-6): 427–449.
Mcbride–Chang C, Wagner RK, Muse A, Chow BWY, Shu H. The role of morphological awareness in children’s vocabulary acquisition in English. Applied Psycholinguistics. 2005; 26(3):415-35. doi: 10.1017/s014271640505023x
Pittas E, Nunes T. The relation between morphological awareness and reading and spelling in Greek: A longitudinal study. Reading and Writing. 2014; 27(8):1507-27. doi: 10.1007/s11145-014-9503-6
Barbosa VDR. [The role of morphosyntactic awareness in the acquisition and in reading and writing improvement (Portuguese)]. Paraná: Federal University of Paraná; 2013.
Mortimore T. Dyslexia and learning style: A practitioner’s handbook. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.
Spencer M, Muse A, Wagner RK, Foorman B, Petscher Y, Schatschneider C, et al. Examining the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Reading and Writing. 2015; 28(7):959-88. doi: 10.1007/s11145-015-9557-0
Berninger VW, Abbott RD, Nagy W, Carlisle J. Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2009; 39(2):141-63. doi: 10.1007/s10936-009-9130-6
Cunningham AJ, Carroll JM. Early predictors of phonological and morphological awareness and the link with reading: Evidence from children with different patterns of early deficit. Applied Psycholinguistics. 2015; 36(3):509-31. doi: 10.1017/s0142716413000295
Kuo LJ, Anderson RC. Morphological awareness and learning to read: A cross-language perspective. Educational Psychologist. 2006; 41(3):161-80. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep4103_3
Frost R. A universal approach to modeling visual word recognition and reading: Not only possible, but also inevitable. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2012; 35(5):310-29. doi: 10.1017/s0140525x12000635
McCutchen D, Stull S. Morphological awareness and children’s writing: accuracy, error, and invention. Reading and Writing. 2014; 28(2):271-89. doi: 10.1007/s11145-014-9524-1
Deacon SH, Benere J, Pasquarella A. Reciprocal relationship: Children’s morphological awareness and their reading accuracy across grades 2 to 3. Developmental Psychology. 2013; 49(6):1113-26. doi: 10.1037/a0029474
Taghva K, Beckley R, Sadeh M. A stemming algorithm for the Farsi language. Paper presented at: The Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 2005 ITCC 2005 International Conference. 16 May 2005; Las Vegas, USA.
Qasemizadeh B. Farsi e-Orthography: An example of e-orthography concept. Paper presented at: The Improving Non-English Web Searching (iNEWS07) SIGIR07 Workshop. 27 July 2007; Amsterdam, Netherlands.