Journal of Modern Rehabilitation 2016. 10(4):185-192.

The Relationship Between Bimanual Coordination and Writing Skill in Elementary School Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder
Ebrahim Norouzi, Leily Alizade, Hassan Mohammadzadeh


Introduction: This study investigated the relationship between bimanual coordination and writing skill in the elementary school children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) living in Urmia City, Iran.
Material and Methods: A total of 60 elementary school children, both male and female, with DCD aged 7 to 9 years old were selected based on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) test and relevant questionnaires. These subjects were requested to perform in-phase and anti-phase patterns. Writing composition scores and bimanual coordination tool were used as measures of children’s writing performance and bimanual accuracy. Descriptive statistics and coefficient regression were used for data analysis.
Results: The results indicated a statistically positive correlation between children’s bimanual accuracy and their writing skill. In other words, regression indicated that bimanual coordination accuracy test was a significant predictor for the writing skill (R2=0.331, P=0.001).
Conclusion: In general, motor control ability of children with developmental coordination disorder and its relationship with writing performance should be considered.



Writing performance, Relative phase, Motor control, Motor pattern, Developmental coordination disorder

Full Text:



Kroll B. Second language writing (Cambridge applied linguistics): Research insights for the classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1997.

Barry J. The effect of socio-economic status on academic achievement [PhD dissertation]. Wichita, Kansas: Wichita State University; 2005.

Cox LE, Harris EC, Auld ML, Johnston LM. Impact of tactile function on upper limb motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2015; 45-46:373–83. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2015.07.034

Jackson G., Jackson S., Newport R, Harvey M. Co-ordination of bimanual movements in a centrally deafferented patient executing open loop reach-to-grasp movements. Acta Psychologica. 2002; 110(2-3):231–46. doi: 10.1016/s0001-6918(02)00035-5

Sigrist R, Rauter G, Riener R, Wolf P. Augmented visual, auditory, haptic, and multimodal feedback in motor learning: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 2012; 20(1):21–53. doi: 10.3758/s13423-012-0333-8

Grillo EU, Almeida Q, Lee TD, Abbott KV. Do vision and audition influence bimanual timing coordination for in-phase and anti-phase patterns in a linear slide task. The Open Sports Sciences Journal. 2010; 3(1):105–10. doi: 10.2174/1875399x01003010105

Pienaar AE, Barhorst R, Twisk JWR. Relationships between academic performance, SES school type and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners: New-Child study. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2013; 40(3):370–8. doi: 10.1111/cch.12059

Piek JP, Dawson L, Smith LM, Gasson N. The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability. Human Movement Science. 2008; 27(5):668–81. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2007.11.002

Westendorp M, Houwen S, Hartman E, Visscher C. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2011; 32(3):1147–53. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.009

Byblow WD, Carson RG, Goodman D. Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science. 1994; 13(1):3–28. doi: 10.1016/0167-9457(94)90027-2

Carson RG, Thomas J, Summers JJ, Walters MR, Semjen A. The dynamics of bimanual circle drawing. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A. 1997; 50(3):664–83. doi: 10.1080/027249897392062

Kelso JA. Phase transitions and critical behavior in human bimanual coordination. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 1984; 246(6):R1000-4. PMID: 6742155

Salter JE, Wishart LR, Lee TD, Simon D. Perceptual and motor contributions to bimanual coordination. Neuroscience Letters. 2004; 363(2):102–7. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.03.071

Swinnen SP, Jardin K, Meulenbroek R, Dounskaia N, Den Brandt MHV. Egocentric and allocentric constraints in the expression of patterns of interlimb coordination. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 1997; 9(3):348–77. doi: 10.1162/jocn.1997.9.3.348

Baldissera F, Cavallari P, Marini G, Tassone G. Differential control of in-phase and anti-phase coupling of rhythmic movements of ipsilateral hand and foot. Experimental Brain Research. 1991; 83(2):375-80.

Li Y, Levin O, Forner-Cordero A, Ronsse R, Swinnen SP. Coordination of complex bimanual multijoint movements under increasing cycling frequencies: The prevalence of mirror-image and translational symmetry. Acta Psychologica. 2009; 130(3):183–95. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2008.12.003

Swinnen SP, Dounskaia N, Verschueren S, Serrien DJ, Daelman A. Relative phase destabilization during interlimb coordination: the disruptive role of kinesthetic afferences induced by passive movement. Experimental Brain Research. 1990; 105(3): 439-54. doi: 10.1007/bf00233044

Kelso JA, Jeka JJ. Symmetry breaking dynamics of human multilimb coordination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1992; 18(3):645–68. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.18.3.645

Li Y, Levin O, Carson RG, Swinnen SP. Bimanual coordination: constraints imposed by the relative timing of homologous muscle activation. Experimental Brain Research. 2004; 156(1):27–38. doi: 10.1007/s00221-003-1762-4

Da Silva Pacheco SC, Gabbard C, Ries LGK, Bobbio TG. Interlimb coordination and academic performance in elementary school children. Pediatrics International. 2016; 58(10):967–73. doi: 10.1111/ped.12972

Rodger S, Ziviani J, Watter P, Ozanne A, Woodyatt G, Springfield E. Motor and functional skills of children with developmental coordination disorder: A pilot investigation of measurement issues. Human Movement Science. 2003; 22(4-5):461–78. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2003.09.004

Millichap JG. Fine and gross motor ability in males with ADHD. Pediatric Neurology Briefs. 2003; 17(9):70. doi: 10.15844/pedneurbriefs-17-9-5

Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971; 9(1):97-113. PMID: 5146491Jacobs HL. Testing ESL Composition: A practical approach. English Composition Program. New York: Newbury House Publishers; 1981.

Castelli DM, Hillman CH, Buck SM, Erwin HE. Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2007; 29(2):239–52. doi: 10.1123/jsep.29.2.239

Hillman CH, Castelli DM, Buck SM. Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2005; 37(11):1967–74. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000176680.79702.ce

Roberts CK, Freed B, McCarthy WJ. Low aerobic fitness and obesity are associated with lower standardized test scores in children. Journal of Pediatrics. 2010; 156(5):711–718.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.11.039

Bobbio TG, Gabbard C, Gonçalves VG, Filho AAB, Morcillo AM. Interlimb coordination differentiates Brazilian children from two socioeconomic settings. Pediatrics International. 2009; 52(3):353–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200x.2009.02960.x

Lopes L, Santos R, Pereira B, Lopes VP. Associations between gross motor coordination and academic achievement in elementary school children. Human Movement Science. 2013; 32(1):9–20. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2012.05.005

Prunty MM, Barnett AL, Wilmut K, Plumb MS. The impact of handwriting difficulties on compositional quality in children with developmental coordination disorder. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2016; 79(10):591–7. doi: 10.1177/0308022616650903

Williams AM, Davids K, Williams JG. Visual perception and action in sport. Abingdon: Taylor and Francis; 1999. doi: 10.4324/9780203979952

Rigoli D, Piek JP, Kane R, Whillier A, Baxter C, Wilson P. An 18-month follow-up investigation of motor coordination and working memory in primary school children. Human Movement Science. 2013; 32(5):1116–26. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2013.07.014



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.