Journal of Modern Rehabilitation 2016. 10(3):128-133.

A Comparison of Memory and Mental Development between Dyslexia and Normal Children
Mehran Soleimani, Golnaz Jabari

Abstract


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the memory and mental development between dyslexia and normal children in Khoy city.
Material and Methods: This is causal-comparative study. The population of this research included all normal and dyslexic female students who were third- or fifth-graders (aged 9-12
years) from primary schools in Khoy city, Iran, in the academic year 2013-2014. The sample consisted of 100 students into the two groups as dyslexic and normal groups that 50 students were selected for each group and then were examined. Sampling of dyslexic students was non-random available sampling from the center of learning disorders and for normal group was multi-stages cluster random sampling. The measurement tools were Wechsler Memory Scale and mental development scale of Piaget. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance.
Results: The results indicated that in mental development scores; there was a significant difference between dyslexia and normal students (P < 0.001), as well as in working memory scores, there was a significant difference between dyslexia and normal students (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Dyslexia students have lower capacity in terms of memory and mental development than normal students that poor capacity of working memory and mental holding may contribute problems in reading specially dyslexia in elementary students.
Keywords: Working memory; Mental development and dyslexia; Piaget; Development theory

Keywords


Working memory; Mental development and dyslexia; Piaget; Development theory

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brooks AD, Berninger VW, Abbott RD. Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: momentary inefficiency in the phonological and orthographic loops of working memory. Dev Neuropsychol 2011; 36(7): 847-68.

Handler SM, Fierson WM, Section on Ophthalmology. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics 2011; 127(3): e818-e856.

Gernsbacher MA, Faust ME. The mechanism of suppression: a component of general comprehension skill. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 1991; 17(2): 245-62.

Gooch D, Snowling M, Hulme C. Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children

with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2011; 52(2): 195-203.

Swanson HL, Sachse-Lee C. Mathematical problem solving and working memory in children with learning disabilities: both executive and phonological processes are important. J Exp Child Psychol 2001; 79(3): 294-321.

Palladino P, Cornoldi C, De Beni R, Pazzaglia F. Working memory and updating processes in reading comprehension. Mem Cognit 2001; 29(2): 344-54.

de Jong PF. Working memory deficits of reading disabled children. J Exp Child Psychol 1998; 70(2): 75-96.

McNamara JK, Wong B. Memory for everyday information in students with learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 2003; 36(5): 394-406.

Gathercole SE, Pickering SJ, Ambridge B, Wearing H. The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Dev Psychol 2004; 40(2): 177-90.

Afrooz GA. Principles and methods for preventing of disability: looking at main causes of sensory and motor handicap among school age children in rural and urban regions of Iran. Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran Press; 2006. [In Persian].

McCrory EJ, Mechelli A, Frith U, Price CJ. More than words: a common neural basis for reading and naming deficits in developmental dyslexia? Brain 2005; 128(2): 261.

McGrath LM, Pennington BF, Shanahan MA, Santerre-Lemmon LE, Barnard HD, Willcutt EG, et al. A multiple deficit model of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: searching for shared cognitive deficits. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2011; 52(5): 547-57.

MacDonald MC, Just MA, Carpenter PA. Working memory constraints on the processing of syntactic ambiguity. Cogn Psychol 1992; 24(1): 56-98.

Beneventi H, Tonnessen FE, Ersland L. Dyslexic children show short-term memory deficits in phonological storage and serial rehearsal: an fMRI study. Int J Neurosci 2009; 119(11): 2017-43.

Wang JJ, Bi HY, Gao LQ, Wydell TN. The visual magnocellular pathway in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia 2010; 48(12): 3627-33.

Cohen-Mimran R, Sapir S. Deficits in working memory in young adults with reading disabilities. J Commun Disord 2007; 40(2): 168-83.

Zhu DM, Wang J, Wu HR. Switch dysfunction in developmental dyslexia: a study with Chinese children. Zhongguo Ertong Baojian Zazhi 2011; 19(3): 207-9.

Shiran A, Breznitz Z. The effect of cognitive training on recall range and speed of information processing in the working memory of dyslexic and skilled readers. J Neurolinguistics 2011; 24(5): 524-37.

Li SC, Lewandowsky S. Forward and backward recall: Different retrieval processes. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 1995; 21(4): 837-47.

Miller P, Kupfermann A. The role of visual and phonological representations in the processing of written words by readers with diagnosed dyslexia: evidence from a working memory task. Ann Dyslexia 2009; 59(1): 12-33.

Grossi G, Coch D, Coffey-Corina S, Holcomb PJ, Neville HJ. Phonological processing in visual rhyming: a developmental erp study. J Cogn Neurosci 2001; 13(5): 610-25.

Dahlin KIE. Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs. Read Writ 2011; 24(4): 479-91.

McCrory EJ, Mechelli A, Frith U, Price CJ. More than words: a common neural basis for reading and naming deficits in developmental dyslexia? Brain 2005; 128(Pt 2): 261-7.

Dunning DL, Holmes J, Gathercole SE. Does working memory training lead to generalized improvements in children with low working memory? A randomized controlled trial. Dev Sci 2013; 16(6): 915-25.

Wagner RK, Waesche JSB, Schatschneider C, Maner JK, Ahmed Y. Using response to intervention for identification and classification. In: McCardle P, Miller B, Lee J, Jun R, Tzeng OJL, editors. Dyslexia across languages: Orthography and the brain-gene-behavior Link.Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing; 2011.

Mabbott DJ, Bisanz J. Computational skills, working memory, and conceptual knowledge in older children with mathematics learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 2008; 41(1): 15-28.

Meyer ML, Salimpoor VN, Wu SS, Geary DC, Menon V. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. Learn Individ Differ 2010; 20(2): 101-9.

Gropper RJ, Gotlieb H, Kronitz R, Tannock R. Working memory training in college students with ADHD or LD. J Atten Disord 2014; 18(4): 331-45.

Fine JG, Musielak KA, Semrud-Clikeman M. Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD. Child Neuropsychol 2014; 20(6): 641-61.

World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 1993.

Zarbakhsh M, Haroon Rashidi H, Mohajeri Iravani M, Taghavi Dinani P. Comparison of Social

Understanding (based on Mind Theory) and its Dimensions in Students with Verbal Learning Disabilities (VLD) and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD). Indian J Edu Inf Manage 2012; 1(9): 406-13.

Sarmad Z, Bazargan A, Hejazi E. Research method in behavioral sciences. 7th ed. Tehran, Iran: Agah Publications; 2004. [In Persian].

Piaget J. Child's Conception Of Number. New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company; 1965.

Siegler RS, DeLoache JS, Eisenberg N. How Children Develop. New York, NY: Worth Publishers; 2003.

Ginsburg H, Opper S. Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1969.

Twidle J. Is the concept of conservation of volume in solids really more difficult than for liquids, or is the way we test giving us an unfair comparison? Educational Research 2006; 48(1): 93-109.

Ahghar GH, Esmaeili T. Standardize of cognitive development test of children and adolescents based on Piaget system [Research Project]. Tehran, Iran: Education Research Center; 2004. [In Persian].

Schlaggar BL, McCandliss BD. Development of neural systems for reading. Annu Rev Neurosci 2007; 30: 475-503.

Zhu D, Wang J, Wu H. Working memory function in Chinese dyslexic children: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2012; 32(1): 141-5.

Gathercole SE, Alloway TP, Kirkwood HJ, Elliott JG, Holmes J, Hilton KA. Attentional and executive function behaviours in children with poor working memory. Learning and Individual Differences 2008; 18(2): 214-23.

Gathercole S, Alloway TP. Working Memory and Learning: A Practical Guide for Teachers. London, UK: SAGE Publications; 2008.

Bishop DV. The interface between genetics and psychology: lessons from developmental dyslexia. Proc Biol Sci 2015; 282(1806): 20143139.

Richlan F. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth. Front Hum Neurosci 2014; 8: 347.

Pammer K. Brain mechanisms and reading remediation: more questions than answers. Scientifica (Cairo) 2014; 2014: 802741.

Mammarella IC, Cornoldi C. An analysis of the criteria used to diagnose children with Nonverbal Learning Disability (NLD). Child Neuropsychol 2014; 20(3): 255-80.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.