A Review on Evidence-Based Treatment in Phonological Interventions With Emphasis on Cycles Approach
AbstractIntroduction: Speech sounds disorders are regarded as the most significant problems among children’s communication disorders. Employing the clinical experience and expertise alongside with preserving the patient’s virtue, a therapeutic approach should be adopted based on valid clinical evidence. The Cycles Approach is proposed by Hodson for the treatment of moderate to severe phonological disorders. Given that the results are sometimes controversy in the field of pathology of speech and language, to ensure that time and resources are used ethically is of considerable importance. Therefore, the research studies using this approach in the treatment of speech disorder are analyzed in this review study. Materials and Methods: The keywords of Phonology, Evidence-based Practice and Cycles Approach are chosen. Databases include Science Direct, PubMed, ASHA, and Springer. Sixteen papers were extracted from 1983 to December 2017. After the initial review, nine papers were selected for this review study.Results: The reduction of all phonological processes as well as development of phonological awareness of the child and improvement in phonological production and phonological awareness are approved following the treatment. Production of non-irritable sounds showed a significant improvement in the succeeding group and individual combination therapy. Furthermore early intervention leads to an increase in the percentage of correct consonants as well as mean length of utterance. The Cycles Approach results in the reduction of the spelling errors patterns at phoneme, word, sentence and conversation levels.Conclusion: Considering the research studies over the past three decades, Cycles Approach can be considered as an evidence-based treatment and the therapists can apply it as an appropriate method to interfere with the speech sound disorders in children having moderate to severe phonological disorders.
Bernthal JE, Bankson NW, Flipsen P. Articulation and phonological disorders: Speech sound disorders in children. New York: Pearson Education; 2012. [PMCID]
Qvarnström MJ, Laine MT, Jaroma SM. Prevalence of articulatory disorders of different sounds in a group of Finnish first-graders. Journal of Communication Disorders. 1991; 24(5-6):381-92. [DOI:10.1016/0021-9924(91)90010-G]
Sadolahi A, Kasbi F, Oryadi Zanjani MM, Eftekhari Z, Ghorbani R, Jenabi MS. [Prevalence of articulation disorders of primary schoolers in Semnan (Persian)]. Journal of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. 2004; 6(1):57-61.
Karbasi SA, Fallah R, Golestan M. The prevalence of speech disorder in primary school students in Yazd-Iran. Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49(1):33. [PMID]
Goulart BNGd, Chiari BM. Prevalence of speech disorders in schoolchildren and its associated factors. Revista de Saúde Pública. 2007; 41(5):726-31. [DOI:10.1590/s0034-89102007000500006] [PMID]
Robey R, Apel K, Dollaghan C, Ellmo W, Hall N, Helfer T, et al. Report of the joint coordinating committee on evidence-based practice. Rockville (MD): ASHA; 2004.
Trinder L. Introduction: The context of evidence-based practice. In Trinder L, Reynolds Sh (editors), Evidence-based practice: A critical appraisal. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2000.
Baker E, McLeod S. Evidence-based management of phonological impairment in children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 2004; 20(3):261-85. [DOI:10.1191/0265659004ct275oa]
Practice APTFoE-B. Evidence-based practice in psychology. The American Psychologist. 2006; 61(4):271. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.271] [PMID]
Hodson BW. A facilitative approach for remediation of a child’s profoundly unintelligible phonological system. Topics in Language Disorders. 1983; 3(2):24-34. [DOI:10.1097/00011363-198303000-00006]
Hodson BW. Evaluation & enhancing children’s phonological systems. Toronto: PhonoComb Publishing; 2010.
Stoel Gammon C, Stone Goldman J, Glaspey A. Pattern-based approaches to phonological therapy. Seminars in Speech and Language. 2002; 23(1):3-14. [DOI:10.1055/s-2002-23507] [PMID]
Alfonso N. The effects of phonological cycles treatment on the occurrence of phonological patterns [PhD dissertation]. Texas: Texas Christian University; 2015.
Paul R, Norbury C. Language disorders from infancy through adolescence-E-Book: Listening, speaking, reading, Writing, and Communicating. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012.
Tyler AA, Edwards ML, Saxman JH. Clinical application of two phonologically based treatment procedures. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 1987; 52(4):393-409. [DOI:10.1044/jshd.5204.393] [PMID]
Montgomery JK, Bonderman IR. Serving preschool children with severe phonological disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 1989; 20(1):76-84. [DOI:10.1044/0161-1461.2001.76]
Almost D, Rosenbaum P. Effectiveness of speech intervention for phonological disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 1998; 40(5):319-25. [PMID]
Tyler AA, Watterson KH. Effects of phonological versus language intervention in preschoolers with both phonological and language impairment. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 1991; 7(2):141-60. [DOI:10.1177/026565909100700203]
Gillon GT. Facilitating phoneme awareness development in 3-and 4-year-old children with speech impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 2005; 36(4):308-24. [DOI:10.1044/0161-1461(2005/031)]
Rvachew S, Rafaat S, Martin M. Stimulability, speech perception skills, and the treatment of phonological disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 1999; 8(1):33-43. [DOI:10.1044/1058-0360.0801.33]
Rudolph JM, Wendt O. The efficacy of the cycles approach: A multiple baseline design. Journal of communication disorders. 2014; 47:1-16. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2013.12.003] [PMID] [PMCID]
Ratner NB. Evidence-based practice: An examination of its ramifications for the practice of speech-language pathology. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 2006; 37(4):257-67. [DOI:10.1044/0161-1461(2006/029)]
Dollaghan CA. The handbook for evidence-based practice in communication disorders. Baltimore: Brookes Pub.; 2007.