Journal of Modern Rehabilitation <span><strong>Journal of Modern Rehabilitation</strong> publishes articles relating to both clinical and basic science aspects of rehabilitation medicine in form of full-length paper, short communications, letter to editor, and reviews. It aims to be a wide forum for different areas of research in rehabilitation medicine, including functional assessment and intervention studies, clinical studies in various patient groups, papers on methodology in physical and rehabilitation medicine, epidemiological studies on disabling conditions and reports on vocational and sociomedical aspects of rehabilitation. </span><p>It aims to be a wide forum for different areas of research in rehabilitation medicine, including functional assessment and intervention studies, clinical studies in various patient groups, papers on methodology in physical and rehabilitation medicine, epidemiological studies on disabling conditions and reports on vocational and socio-medical aspects of rehabilitation.</p><p><strong>This Journal has been published in Persian, previously. To access the previous archive, <a href="" target="_blank">Click here</a>.</strong></p><p><strong>Journal of Modern Rehabilitation is published in association with the Iranian Scientific Associations and Research Centers:</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>      The Iranian Occupational Therapy Association</p><p>      The Iranian Society of Optometry</p><p>      The Iranian Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation</p><p>      The Iranian Physiotherapy Association</p><p>      The Iranian Scientific Speech Therapy Association</p><p>      The Iranian Scientific Association for Orthotics &amp; Prosthetics</p><p>      The Neuro‏musculoskeletal Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences</p> en-US Journal of Modern Rehabilitation 2538-385X Assessment of Satisfaction of Rehabilitation Students With Clinical Education Quality in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Increasing the prevalence and complexity of rehabilitation-related disorders has risen the responsibility of future therapists. Learning clinical skills is largely influenced by the effectiveness of the clinical education at university. Identifying the status of clinical education helps resolve or modify the weak points to attain the educational goals and educate skilled people. The purpose of this study was to determine the satisfaction of rehabilitation students with clinical education quality at Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in 2017.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 153 rehabilitation students. The relevant data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire of clinical education satisfaction. Then the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the independent t test and ANOVA by SPSS.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The overall satisfaction of students (from different fields of Rehabilitation) with clinical education was reported to be between 50% and 63%. There was a significant difference between the students’ satisfaction with the quality of clinical education and the field of study (P=0.001)<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Conducting ongoing education courses to promote the academic level of trainers, rehabilitating the educational environment based on strategic plans, setting up a specific tool and method for clinical evaluation of the students, and determining the minimum clinical qualifications based on the number of patients assessed during internship and apprenticeship can be of great assistance to increase students’ satisfaction.</p> Masoume Hosseini Beidokhti Negin Moradi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-18 2018-06-18 11 4 251 257 Problems of Clinical Education From the Viewpoints of the Physiotherapy Students in Iran Universities <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Evaluating the educational programs in various Medical Science disciplines is a highly sensitive matter and of great importance. Physiotherapy (PT) is an important field of Rehabilitation Sciences, which requires distinguished scientific and professional skills. One of the practical ways to assess the quality of clinical education in PT is to study the students’ perspective in this field, because they are the main target audience for education. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the problems in clinical training of PT students, from the medical students’ perspective, in different universities of Tehran City. <br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The present study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis approach, through individual interviews with 13 PT undergraduate students in Tehran. They were recruited through targeted sampling with maximum variation. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> After analyzing the obtained data, a total of 4 themes were derived, which included characteristics of clinical supervision, training schedules and training, setting of clinical training, and general characteristics of the learners. Furthermore, 22 subthemes were obtained; some of them included lack of clinical teaching experience among the faculty members, no supervision in clinical teaching, for example, theory and clinical courses being held in one day, short duration of clinical teaching, inappropriate facilities, and the disorganisation and laziness of some students.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Perhaps changing the clinical teaching methods, employing experienced and effective instructors, taking courses more seriously by students, establishing appropriate facilities for clinical training, supervision of the PT department over the performance of the teachers and the events during internships, and increasing the duration of theory and clinical courses, can all be effective in improving the quality of clinical training.</p> Fatemeh Menatnia Shohreh Noorizadeh Dehkordi Mehdi Dadgoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-18 2018-06-18 11 4 245 250 Phonological Awareness in Preschool Persian Speaking Children With Speech Sound Disorder: Impact of Comorbid Language Impairment <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> This study aimed to investigate Phonological Awareness (PA) in children with Speech Sound Disorder (SSD). There are conflicting results about the pre-literacy skills of children with SSD. Previous studies have documented the heterogeneity within SSD children. The presence of a comorbid Language Impairment (LI) is an important factor for this heterogeneity.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The current study examined how a comorbid LI is related to phonological awareness as a pre-literacy skill in a sample of 5- to 6-year-old children with SSD. Participants were 46 children who divided into SSD and LI (n=13), isolated SSD (n=17), and normally developing peers (n=16). Speech production, language, and PA were assessed in these children. <br /><strong>Results:</strong> PA scores were significantly lower for children with comorbid LI. The difference between children with isolated SSD without any LI and normally developing children on PA tasks was observed only in words with same final consonant (P=0.021). These two groups performed similar on other PA tasks. Phoneme blending was the only variable that not yielded significant differences between three groups of children (P=0.183). The study of relation between children’s skills on the percentage of consonants correct (PCC), oromotor abilities, language skills, and PA showed that only there was a relation between spoken language and rhyme in children with SSD and LI (r=0.63, P=0.021). <br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results suggest that children with SSD and comorbid LI experience PA deficits. These results suggested that PA and spoken language should be assessed in preschoolers with SSD.</p> Zahra Soleymani Navideh Shakeri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-18 2018-06-18 11 4 237 244 The Effect of Stump Level on Activity and Fatigability of Knee Extensor Muscles <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Muscle fatigue is tiredness, in other words, loss of productive capacity of power in response to the activity. The development of fatigue during prolonged exercise may be evaluated by repeated assessments of maximal voluntary force. This study aimed to determine the effect of muscle fatigue on trans-tibial stump level in knee extensor muscles (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris) at 30 and 45 degree knee flexions by using surface electromyography.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty male amputees with trans-tibial amputation, aged between 18-50 years were assigned randomly in three groups; performed three isometric contractions with extended knee at 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction. Median Frequency (MDF) and Root Mean Square (RMS) values were obtained by surface electromyography from the knee extensor muscles at 30 and 45 degree knee flexions. Force values in stump and sound sides during knee flexion at 30 and 45 degree were also compared.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Median frequency on sound side showed more fatigue and MDF-RMS between stump levels was short, medium, and long for knee extensor muscles at 30 and 45 degree, before and after the fatigue. No significant effect between stump and sound side was found. Vastus lateralis muscle showed more power than vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles before fatigue. But after fatigue, rectus femoris muscle showed more power than vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. <br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results have confirmed that trans-tibial amputees with good functional ability showed more fatigability on the sound side while stump side showed more power. Vastus lateralis muscle had maximum power on both sides. Vastus medialis and rectus femoris of long stump levels and vastus lateralis muscle of short levels were more powerful.</p> Gholamreza Olyaei Mohammad Reza Hadian Saeed Talebian Shohreh Jalaie Seyed Asadullah Arslan Masood Abdullah Hussein ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-18 2018-06-18 11 4 231 236 Comparing Perception of Antonymy Between Persian-Speaking Educable Children With Intellectual Disabilities and Typically Developing Children <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Antonymy is a key feature of everyday conversation, mental organization of words and discourse. It is also known that the most important characteristic of children with intellectual disabilities is language delay. Therefore, such children may have difficulties in the perception of antonymy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative study of the perception of various types of antonymy between Typically Developing (TD) and educable Persian-speaking children with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, whether the perception of various types of antonymy is similar in these two groups of children. This research may offer clues for the necessity of the investigation of antonymy to help perceive the semantic knowledge by children with intellectual disabilities because the semantic knowledge is in turn vital for language comprehension.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The study subjects included 15 TD children between 6 to 8 years of age and 15 educable children with intellectual disabilities with mental age of 6 to 8 years. Data were collected via a researcher-made test of perception of antonymy. A total of 30 questions were used to compare the perception of antonymy in terms of simple, gradable, reverse, converse, open and close taxonomy antonyms. Each question included three words.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Except for the gradable antonymy subcategory, the perception of various types of antonymy between two groups of children showed a significant difference (P&lt;0.05).<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The research findings indicated that children with intellectual disabilities had difficulties with antonymy perception.</p> Abbas Ali Ahangar Mehrdad Mazaheri Mohaddeseh Soltani Nezhad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-18 2018-06-18 11 4 219 230