Effectiveness of Group Training of Mindfulness-Based Techniques on Improvement of Psychological Well-Being of Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractIntroduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group training of mindfulness-based techniques on improvement of psychological well-being of patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) covered by Tabriz Rehabilitation Organization.Material and Methods: To this aim, 30 patients with SCI were selected by cluster random sampling out of paralyzed people due to SCI from centers covered by Tabriz Welfare Organization. Then, they were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15) and control group (n=15). The experimental group received 8 sessions of mindfulness training, but the control group received no intervention. Both groups completed psychological well-being scale of Ryff as well as demographic questionnaire before and after the intervention.Results: Result of covariance analysis showed that mindfulness training affected improvement of self-acceptance (F=31.55, P<0.001), establishment of quality ties to others (F=31.55, P<0.001), a sense of autonomy (F=231.87, P<0.001), ability to manage complex environments (F=121.64, P<0.001), pursuit meaningful goals (F=212.15, P<0.001), continued growth and development as a person (F=747.09, P<0.001), and total score of psychological well-being (F=1212.83, P<0.001) of patients with SCI. Conclusion: The findings supported the effectiveness of mindfulness training on improvement of psychological well-being of patients with SCI, and such changes may occur due to mediating the role of recognition mechanism.
Moghadam M, Habibi R, Davatgaran K, Nazmdeh K. [Comprehensive rehabilitation of spinal cord injury (Persian)]. Tehran: Welfare Organization of Iran; 2007.
Kahrazie F, Mirshekar T. [Effect of wives group training on activities of daily living and quality of life in male patients with spinal cord injury (Persian)]. Medical - Surgical Nursing Journal. 2015; 4(1):54-9.
Liu C-W, Attar KH, Gall A, Shah J, Craggs M. The relationship between bladder management and health-related quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury in the UK. Spinal Cord. 2009; 48(4):319–24. doi: 10.1038/sc.2009.132
Karbalai Esmaili S, Modiran E, Mousavi B, Javadi Parvaneh M. [Participation and satisfaction after spinal cord injury: results of a vocational, marriage and leisure outcome study in Iranian victim females after spinal cord injury (Persian)]. Journal of Teb-e-Janbaz. 2009; 1(2):65-72.
Yousefpoor M, Garvosi MT. [The effect of life skills training on mental health, social performance and depression of physical disabilities of Tabriz city (Persian)]. Woman and Family Studies. 2009; 1(3):123-37.
Williams R, Murray A. Prevalence of depression after spinal cord injury: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(1):133–40. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.08.016
McCullumsmith CB, Kalpakjian CZ, Richards JS, Forchheimer M, Heinemann AW, Richardson EJ, et al. Novel risk factors associated with current suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts in individuals with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(5):799–808. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.12.017
Craig A, Nicholson Perry K, Guest R, Tran Y, Dezarnaulds A, Hales A, et al. Prospective study of the occurrence of psychological disorders and comorbidities after spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(8):1426–34. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2015.02.027
Migliorini C, Tonge B. Reflecting on subjective well-being and spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2009; 41(6):445–50. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0358
Diener E, Oishi S, Lucas RE. Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of Life. Annual Review of Psychology. 2003; 54(1):403–25. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056
Diener E, Oishi S, Lucas R. Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2009. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195187243.013.0017
Hadadi Koohsar AA, Rooshan R &, Asgharnejad FArid AA. [Comparision between emotional intelligence and mental health of students with their family relationships (Persian)]. Journal of Modern Psychological Research. 2006; 1(4):69-87.
Kaviani H, Hatami N, Shafiabadi A. [Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) reduces depression and anxiety induced by real stressful setting in non-clinical population (Persian)]. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 2011; 11(2):285-296.
Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003; 84(4):822–48. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1242
Walsh JJ, Balint MG, Smolira SJ DR, Fredericksen LK, Madsen S. Predicting individual differences in mindfulness: The role of trait anxiety, attachment anxiety and attentional control. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009; 46(2):94–9. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.008
Baer RA. Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2003; 10(2):125–43. doi: 10.1093/clipsy/bpg015
Kabat-Zinn J. Coming to our senses: Healing ourselves and the world through mindfulness. New York: Hyperion; 2005.
Golpour R, Mohammad Amin Z. [The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction and increasing self–expression in student with exam anxiety (Persian)]. Journal of School Psychology. 2012; 1(3):82-100.
Carmody J, Reed G, Kristeller J, Merriam P. Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2008; 64(4):393–403. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.06.015
Kazemian S. [The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on general health of- self-therapy abusers (Persian)]. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 4(1):181-92.
Jahangirpur M, Mousavi V, Khosrojavid M, Salari A, Rezaei S. [The effectiveness of group mindfulness training on depression, hostility and anxiety in individuals with coronary heart disease (Persian)]. Urmia Medical Journal. 2013; 24(9):730-9.
Skinner TC, Roberton T, Allison GT, Dunlop S, Bucks RS. Experiential avoidance, mindfulness and depression in spinal cord injuries: A preliminary study. The Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counselling. 2010; 16(1):27–35. doi: 10.1375/jrc.16.1.27
Kazdin AE. Research design in clinical psychology. Boston: Allay and Bacon; 1992.
Keyes CLM, Shmotkin D, Ryff CD. Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2002; 82(6):1007–22. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1997
Mikaeily N, Javanmard S. Narimani M. The relationship of perfectionism and type A behavior with psychological well-being in staff (Persian). Psychological Researches. 2013; 21(6): 29-39.
Segal ZV, Williams JM, Teasdale JD. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. New York: Guilford Press; 2012.
Finlay K. Efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for spinal cord injured outpatients with chronic neuropathic pain. Wales: UK Clinical Trial Gatway; 2014. doi: 10.1186/isrctn14165286
Keng S-L, Smoski MJ, Robins CJ. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review. 2011; 31(6):1041–56. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006
Siegel RD. The mindful solution: Everyday practices for everyday problems. New York: Guilford; 2010.
Shapiro SL, Carlson LE, Astin JA, Freedman B. Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2006; 62(3):373–86. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20237
Hayes SC, Follette VM, Linehan M. Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press; 2004.
Hayes SC, Strosahl KD, Wilson KG. Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.