Journal of Modern Rehabilitation 2016. 10(2):67-73.

The Effect of Functional Tests on Kinesiophobia in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-deficient Patients with Similar Quadriceps Strength to Healthy Controls
Ali Ashraf Jamshidi, Mohammad Kamali, Mohammad Akbari, Sorayya Nazari, Mohammad Razi


Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common sport injuries. Despite present progresses in conservative and surgical treatment methods for ACL, the rate of return to pre-injury level (RTP) is low. Fear of movement/reinjury (kinesiophobia) is a major hindrance to RTP in these patients. The aim of the following research was to investigate functional tests’ effect on ACL deficient (ACLD) patients’ kinesiophobia, who do not have significant differences in quadriceps strength, with healthy people. For this purpose, kinesiophobia was measured in these patients before and after functional tests and compared to healthy controls.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 16 ACLD patients who have been injured for at least 3 months to 2 years at the very most and have been under physical therapy treatment and 16 healthy controls. Quadriceps isometric strength, crossover hop, 6 m timed hop score indexes, and kinesiophobia scores were compiled. Patients (n = 16) were divided into two random groups, where Group “A” (n = 8) took the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-17) questionnaire before functional tests, and Group “B” (n = 8) took the TSK-17 after functional tests. TSK-17 was used to measure kinesiophobia. An analysis of variance was used to compare TSK-17 and other clinical measures between groups.
Results: Comparison of kinesiophobia level between Groups A and B showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). However, between the control group and Group B, no statistical difference existed. Functional tests and muscle strength score indexes between the three groups did not have significant differences. Moreover, activity level and time from injury to evaluation between the two groups of patients had no significant differences.
Based on the results, it could be said that ACLD patients carrying out functional tests may possibly be effective in decreasing kinesiophobia as an important hindrance to RTP level. It appears that the reduction is a result of the patients’ increased awareness about their abilities and functional status since their muscle strength was similar to that of healthy controls.


Fear of movement/reinjury; Anterior cruciate ligament deficient; Functional test, muscle strength

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