Balance Performance Disorders and Sway of the Center of Gravity in Children With ADHD

  • Behzad Amini Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0347-5496
  • Seyed Ali Hosseini Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Nazila Akbarfahimi Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5500-8593
Keywords: Sway, Balance, ADHD, Motor deficit

Abstract

Introduction: The main characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the emergence of stability patterns of attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These disorders affect the balance performance of the patients. The disorder has a relatively high prevalence in school-aged children. The purpose of this review study is to investigate the balance and postural abilities of children with ADHD.Materials and Methods: The objectives of this study were investigated by searching in the Web of Science, Medline, PubMed and OTseeker databases. The articles with these criteria were included in this study: published articles in English and Persian accredited journals; study participants were school-aged children with ADHD; Articles with the aim of assessing the participants’ balance skills, the rate of sway of the center of gravity and motor disorders in children with ADHD. The articles were published between 2002 to March 2018. Finally, 18 eligible articles were met the inclusion criteria and reviewed. Results: The 18 articles were entered to the study. The results of most of the articles show disturbances in the balance and Sway of ADHD's children's center of gravity. Balance and motor disorder in children with ADHD has a very high prevalence. Conclusion: The simultaneity of this disorder with DCD and the presence of some defects in the performance of cerebellar in these children are evident and confirms the presence of balance and motor control disorders in children with ADHD. The reason for the defects in the performance of some brain parts is not clear yet.

References

Kaiser ML, Schoemaker M, Albaret JM, Geuze R. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2015; 36:338-57. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.09.023] [PMID]
Amini B, Hosseini SA, Biglarian A, Amiri N, Pishyareh E. Comparative study of mobility quality and walking parameters in children with ADHD and normal controls. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2016; 1(3):e8105. [DOI:10.17795/jmb-8105]
Seidman LJ, Valera EM, Makris N. Structural brain imaging of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2005; 57(11):1263-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.019] [PMID]
Biederman J, Spencer T. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a noradrenergic disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 1999; 46(9):1234-42. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00192-4]
Feng L, Wang YF, Cao QJ. A pilot study on effect of methylphenidate on balance function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Peking University, Health Sciences. 2007; 39(3):304-9.
Kim SM, Hyun GJ, Jung TW, Son YD, Cho IH, Kee BS, et al. Balance deficit and brain connectivity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychiatry Investig. 2017; 14(4):452-7. [DOI:10.4306/pi.2017.14.4.452] [PMID] [PMCID]
Amini B, Noori M, Janghorban M, Tayebi Sani A. [The comparison of postural control skills under different sensory conditions in DCD children and normal peers (Persian)]. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation. 2016; 9(S3):10-9.
Adi Japha E, Landau YE, Frenkel L, Teicher M, Gross-Tsur V, Shalev RS. ADHD and dysgraphia: Underlying mechanisms. Cortex. 2007; 43(6):700-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70499-4]
Williams J, Omizzolo C, Galea MP, Vance A. Motor imagery skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder. Human Movement Science. 2013; 32(1):121-35. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2012.08.003] [PMID]
Aydinli FE, Çak T, Kirazli MÇ, Çinar BÇ, Pektaş A, Çengel EK, et al. Effects of distractors on upright balance performance in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, preliminary study. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2018; 84(3):280-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.bjorl.2016.10.007]
Pitcher TM, Piek JP, Barrett NC. Timing and force control in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Subtype differences and the effect of comorbid developmental coordination disorder. Human Movement Science. 2002; 21(5-6):919-45. [DOI:10.1016/S0167-9457(02)00167-7]
Shorer Z, Becker B, Jacobi Polishook T, Oddsson L, Melzer I. Postural control among children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in single and dual conditions. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2012; 171(7):1087-94. [DOI:10.1007/s00431-012-1695-7] [PMID]
Goetz M, Schwabova JP, Hlavka Z, Ptacek R, Surman CB. Dynamic balance in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2017; 13:873-80. [DOI:10.2147/NDT.S125169] [PMID] [PMCID]
Tervo RC, Azuma S, Fogas B, Fiechtner H. Children with ADHD and motor dysfunction compared with children with ADHD only. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 2002; 44(6):383-90. [DOI:10.1017/S0012162201002250] [PMID]
Sudha D, Rani MP. Gait classification for ADHD children using modified dual tree complex wavelet transform. Paper presented at: 2017 World Congress on Computing and Communication Technologies (WCCCT). 2-4 February 2017; Tiruchirappalli, India.
Blank R. European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD): Recommendations on the definition, diagnosis and intervention of developmental coordination disorder (pocket version) German–Swiss interdisciplinary clinical practice guideline S3‐standard according to the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2012; 54(11):e1-e7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04175.x] [PMID]
Bradley JD, Golden CJ. Biological contributions to the presentation and understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2001; 21(6):907-29. [DOI:10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00073-8]
Hyun GJ, Jung TW, Park JH, Kang KD, Kim SM, Son YD, et al. Changes in gait balance and brain connectivity in response to equine-assisted activity and training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2016; 22(4):286-93. [DOI:10.1089/acm.2015.0299] [PMID]
Karatekin C, Markiewicz SW, Siegel MA. A preliminary study of motor problems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2003; 97(3_suppl):1267-80. [DOI:10.2466/pms.97.7.1267-1280]
Schoemaker MM, Ketelaars CE, Van Zonneveld M, Minderaa RB, Mulder T. Deficits in motor control processes involved in production of graphic movements of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 2005; 47(6):390-5. [DOI:10.1017/S0012162205000769] [PMID]
Klimkeit EI, Mattingley JB, Sheppard DM, Lee P, Bradshaw JL. Motor preparation, motor execution, attention, and executive functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology. 2005; 11(2):153-73. [DOI:10.1080/092970490911298] [PMID]
Zang Y, Gu B, Qian Q, Wang Y. Objective measurement of the balance dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2002; 6(9):1372-4.
Goulardins JB, Rigoli D, Piek JP, Kane R, Palácio SG, Casella EB, et al. The relationship between motor skills, ADHD symptoms, and childhood body weight. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2016; 55:279-86. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2016.05.005] [PMID]
Konicarova J, Bob P, Raboch J. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naive school-aged boys. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment . 2014;10:85-8. [PMID] [PMCID]
Mao HY, Kuo LC, Yang AL, Su CT. Balance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2014; 35(6):1252-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.020] [PMID]
Swan L, Otani H, Loubert PV, Sheffert SM, Dunbar GL. Improving balance by performing a secondary cognitive task. British Journal of Psychology. 2004; 95(1):31-40. [DOI:10.1348/000712604322779442] [PMID]
Manicolo O, Grob A, Hagmann-von Arx P. Gait in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a dual-task paradigm. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017; 8:34. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00034] [PMID] [PMCID]
Fayed N, Modrego PJ, Castillo J, Dávila J. Evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A controlled study with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Academic Radiology. 2007; 14(9):1029-35. [DOI:10.1016/j.acra.2007.05.017] [PMID]
Ebrahimi M, Mahvashe WA, Haghgoo HA, Pourmohammadrezaye TM, Danaiefard F. The effectiveness of sensory-motor integration with an emphasis on proprioceptive and vestibular senses on the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2013; 9(2):220-31.
Dutra T, Baltar A, Monte-Silva K. Motor cortex excitability in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2016; 56:1-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2016.01.022] [PMID]
Published
2018-02-01
How to Cite
1.
Amini B, Hosseini SA, Akbarfahimi N. Balance Performance Disorders and Sway of the Center of Gravity in Children With ADHD. jmr. 12(1):3-2.
Section
Review Article(s)